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|UPSC CSE Anthropology Optional Syllabus for Paper-I|
|1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences,
Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :
(a) Social-cultural Anthropology.
(b) Biological Anthropology.
(c) Archaeological Anthropology.
(d) Linguistic Anthropology.
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man :
(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary
biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive
radiation, and mosaic evolution).
1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate
Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary
and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and
Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :
(a) Plio-preleistocene hominids inSouth and East Africa—Australopithecines.
(b) Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia
(Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.
(c) Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive
(d) Rhodesian man.
(e) Homo saoiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
1.7 The biological basis of Life : The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis,
Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology : Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
(b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures :
(v) Copper-Bronze Age
(vi) Iron Age
2.1 The Nature of Culture : The concept and Characteristics of culture and civilization;
Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural Relativism.
2.2 The Nature of Society : Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institution; Social
groups; and Social stratification.
2.3 Marriage : Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy,
hypogamy, incest taboo); Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group
marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and
proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
2.4 Family : Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of
family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage,
residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist
movements on family.
2.5 Kinship : Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double,
Bilateral Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred);
Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary
Filiation;Decent and Alliance.
3. Economic Organization : Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology;
Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and
exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting
and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization
and indigenous economic systems.
4. Political Organization and Social Control : Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state;
concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple
5. Religion : Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological
and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms
of religion in tribal and peasant Societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and
totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico-religious functionaries (priest,
shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
6. Anthropological theories :
(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
(b) Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism (British, German and American)
(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural—Functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
(d) Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)
(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du Bois)
(f) Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)
(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
(j) Post-modernism in anthropology.
7. Culture, Language and Communication :
Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social
contex of language use.
8. Research methods in Anthropology :
(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
(b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology
(c) Tools of data collection : observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, case study,
genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory
(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
9.1 Human Genetics : Methods and Application : Methods for study of genetic principles in
man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic
method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological
methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and
polygenic inheritance in man.
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg
law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration,
selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating,
genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
(b) Sex chromosomal aberration- Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX),
intersex and other syndromic disorders.
(c) Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA
profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters.
Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial
classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker :ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp,
transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate,
respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-ecomomic
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology : Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic
and Non-genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot
desert, cold, high altitude climate.
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology : Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious
diseases, Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
10. Concept of human growth and Development : Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant,
childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.
—Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical,
nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.
—Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations
—Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies
for growth studies.
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and
11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
12. Applications of Anthropology : Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology,
Anthroplogy in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthroplogy, Methods
and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human
genetics—Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in
diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
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|UPSC CSE Anthropology Optional Syllabus for Paper-II|
|1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization—Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic,
Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Pre-Harappan,
Harappan and post-Harappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian
1.2 Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and
Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
1.3. Ethno‐archaeology in India: The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and Parallels
among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and
crafts producing communities.
2. Demographic profile of India—Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population
and their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth.
3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system—Varnashram, Purushartha,
Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
3.2 Caste system in India— Structure and characteristics Varna and caste, Theories of origin
of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system.
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.
3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity of Indian society.
4. Emergence, growth and development in India—Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early
20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and
5.1 Indian Village—Significane of village study in India; Indian village as a social system;
Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian
relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society:
Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions;
Panchayati Raj and social change; Media and Social change.
6.1 Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic
characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.
6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—Land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low
literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, under- employment, health and
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of
rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and
industrialization on tribal populations.
7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other
Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies : Impact of modern democratic institutions,
development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal
communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change
among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.
8.2 Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal
development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups),
their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal
9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and
ethnic and political movements
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