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UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Exam Detailed Syllabus 2023

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UPSC Combined Geo Scientist Syllabus And Exam Pattern 2022 UPSC Combined Geo Scientist Syllabus PDF in Hindi Download UPSC Combined Geo Scientist Exam Syllabus 2022 & Exam Pattern PDF Download – अगर आप UPSC Combined Geo Scientist Exam की तैयारी कर रहे हो तो पोस्ट आपके लिए अति महत्वपूर्ण है | इस आर्टिकल में UPSC Combined Geo Scientist के सिलेबस के बारे में जानकारी दी गई है| साथ ही आप नीचे दी गई लिंक के द्वारा Pdf डाउनलोड कर  सकते है वे उम्मीदवार जिन्होंने इसका ऑनलाइन आवेदन किया है उनके लिए निवनतम एग्जाम पैटर्न दिया गया है जो आपके लिए तैयारी करने में काम आएगा।

UPSC Combined Geo Scientist Syllabus 2023 PDF Download in Hindi

Board Name UPSC
Post Name Geo-Scientist
Official Website upsc.gov.in
Category Latest Syllabus
Exam Date Comming soon

UPSC Combined Geo Scientist Selection Process

  • Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination
  • Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination
  • Personality Test/ Interview

UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination 

Stream-I : Scientist B (Hydrogeology)
Subject Marks  Time(minutes)
Paper-I : General Studies 100 120
Paper-II : Geology/Hydrogeology 300 120
Total 400
Stream-II : Scientist ‘B’(Geophysics)
Subject  Marks  Time(minutes)
Paper-I : General Studies 100 120
Paper-II : Geophysics 300 120
Total 400
Stream-III : Chemist and Scientist ‘B’(Chemical)
Subject Marks  Time(minutes)
Paper-I : General Studies 100 120
Paper-II : Chemistry 300 120
Total 400
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus Paper-I : General Studies (Common for all streams)
  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography -Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance -Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy,
    Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion,
    Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not
    require subject specialisation
  • General Science
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Paper-II : Geology/Hydrogeology
  • Physical Geology
    Principle of uniformitarianism; origin, differentiation and internal structure of the Earth;
    origin of atmosphere; earthquakes and volcanoes; continental drift, sea-floor spreading, isostasy,
    orogeny and plate tectonics; geological action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves; erosional and
    depositional landforms; weathering processes and products.
  • Structural Geology
    Stress, strain and rheological properties of rocks; planar and linear structures; classification
    of folds and faults; Mohr’s circle and criteria for failure of rocks; ductile and brittle shear in rocks;
    study of toposheets, V-rules and outcrop patterns; stereographic projections of structural elements.
  • Mineralogy
    Elements of symmetry, notations and indices; Bravais lattices; chemical classification of
    minerals; isomorphism, polymorphism, solid solution and exsolution; silicate structures; physical
    and optical properties of common rock forming minerals- olivine, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, mica,
    feldspar and quartz.
  • Igneous Petrology
    Magma types and their evolution; IUGS classification of igneous rocks; forms, structures and
    textures of igneous rocks; applications of binary and ternary phase diagrams in petrogenesis;
    magmatic differentiation and assimilation; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, komatiiites and alkaline
    rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamprophyre and nepheline syenite).
  • Metamorphic Petrology
    Limits, types and controls of metamorphism; metamorphic structures- slate, schist and
    gneiss; metamorphic textures- pre, syn and post tectonic porphyroblasts; concept of metamorphic
    zone, isograd and facies; geothermal gradients, facies series and plate tectonics.
  • Sedimentology
    Origin of sediments; sedimentary textures, grain-size scale; primary sedimentary structures;
    classification of sandstone and carbonate rocks; siliciclastic depositional environments and
    sedimentary facies; diagenesis of carbonate sediments.
  • Paleontology
    Fossils and processes of fossilization; concept of species and binomial nomenclature;
    morphology and classification of invertebrates (Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods
    and Cephalopods); evolution in Equidae and Hominidae; microfossils-Foraminifera, Ostracoda;
    Gondwana flora.
  • Stratigraphy
    Law of superposition; stratigraphic nomenclature- lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and
    chronostratigraphy; Archaean cratonic nucleii of Peninsular India (Dharwar, Singhbhum, and
    Aravalli cratons); Proterozoic mobile belts (Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi and Eastern
    Ghats); Purana sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphy of IndiaSpiti, Kashmir, Damodar valley, Kutch, Trichinopoly, Siwaliks and Indo-Gangetic alluvium.
  • Economic Geology
    Properties of mineral deposits- form, mineral assemblage, texture, rock-ore association and
    relationship; magmatic, sedimentary, metamorphic, hydrothermal, supergene and weathering-related processes of ore formation; processes of formation of coal, and petroleum; distribution and
    geological characteristics of major mineral and hydrocarbon deposits of India.
  • Hydrogeology
    Groundwater occurrence and aquifer characteristics, porosity, permeability, hydraulic
    conductivity, transmissivity; Darcy’s Law in homogenous and heterogenous media; Bernoulli
    equation, Reynold’s number; composition of groundwater; application of H and O isotopes in
    groundwater studies; artificial recharge of groundwater
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Paper-II : Geophysics
  • Solid Earth Geophysics:
    Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar system: origin, formation and
    characteristics of planets, Earth: shape and rotation. Gravity and magnetic fields of earth.
    Geomagnetism, elements of earth’s magnetism, Rock and mineral magnetism, Elastic waves, types
    and their propagation characteristics, internal structure of earth, variation of physical properties in
    the interior of earth. Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and their causes, focal depth, epicenter, Intensity
    and Magnitude scales, Energy of earthquakes, Seismicity.
  • Mathematical Methods in Geophysics:
    Elements of vector analysis, Vector algebra, Properties of scalars, vectors and tensors,
    Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem. Matrices, Eigen values
    and Eigen vectors and their applications in geophysics. Newton’s Law of gravitation, Gravity
    potential and gravity fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes. Basic Forces of Nature and
    their strength: Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak forces. Conservation Laws in
    Physics: Energy, Linear and angular momentum. Rigid body motion and moment of inertia. Basics of
    special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformation.
    Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition of inversion and application to
    Geophysics. Forward and Inverse problems. Probability theory, Random variables, binomial, Poisson
    and normal distributions. Linear algebra, Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second
    order. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions).
    Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions, interpolation, and extrapolation, integration by
    trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, solution of first order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method,
    Introduction to finite difference and finite elements methods.
  • Electromagnetism:
    Electrostatic and magneto-static fields, Coulomb’s law, Electrical permittivity and dielectric
    constant, Lorentz force and their applications. Ampere’s law, Biot and Savart’s law, Gauss’s
    Theorem, Poisson’s equation. Laplace’s equation: solution of Laplace’s equation in Cartesian
    coordinates, use of Laplace’s equation in the solutions of geophysical and electrostatic problems.
    Displacement current, Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Maxwell’s equations. Boundary
    conditions. Wave equation, plane electromagnetic waves in free space, dielectric and conducting
    media, electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials.
  • Geophysical Prospecting:
    Elements of geophysical methods: Principles, data reduction and applications of gravity,
    magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic and well logging methods. Fundamentals of seismic methods:
    Fermat’s Principle, Snell’s Law, Energy portioning, Reflection and transmission coefficients,
    Reflection and Refraction from layered media. Signals and systems, sampling theorem, aliasing
    effect, Fourier series and periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its application, Laplace transforms, Convolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit step
  • Remote Sensing and Thermodynamics:
    Fundamentals of remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum, energy- frequency-wavelength
    relationship, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Wien’s Law, electromagnetic energy and its interactions in the
    atmosphere and with terrain features. Planck’s Radiation Law. Laws of thermodynamics and
    thermodynamic potential.
  • Nuclear Physics and Radiometry:
    Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy,
    semi-empirical mass formula; Fission and fusion. Principles of radioactivity, Alpha, beta and gamma
    decays, Photoelectric and Compton Effect, Pair Production, radioactivity decay law, radioactivity of
    rocks and minerals, Radiation Detectors: Ionization chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter and
    Gamma ray spectrometer. Matter Waves and wave particle duality, Electron spin, Spectrum of
    Hydrogen, helium and alkali atoms
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus Paper-II : Chemistry
  • Chemical periodicity:
    Schrödinger equation for the H-atom. Radial distribution curves for 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d
    orbitals. Electronic configurations of multi-electron atoms.
    Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties. Classification of
    elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General
    characteristics of s, p, d and f block elements. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, atomic
    radii, ionic radii, covalent radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity.
    Group trends and periodic trends in these properties in respect of s-, p- and d-block elements.
    General trends of variation of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, magnetic
    properties, catenation and catalytic properties, oxidation states, aqueous and redox chemistry in
    common oxidation states, properties and reactions of important compounds such as hydrides,
    halides, oxides, oxy-acids, complex chemistry in respect of s-block and p-block elements.
  • Chemical bonding and structure:
    Ionic bonding: Size effects, radius ratio rules and their limitations. Packing of ions in
    crystals, lattice energy, Born-Landé equation and its applications, Born-Haber cycle and its
    applications. Solvation energy, polarizing power and polarizability, ionic potential, Fajan’s rules.
    Defects in solids.
    Covalent bonding: Valence Bond Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, hybridization. Concept of
    resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.
    Coordinate bonding: Werner theory of coordination compounds, double salts and complex salts.
    Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination
    compounds. Coordination numbers, Geometrical isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and
    octahedral complexes.
  • Acids and bases:
    Chemical and ionic equilibrium. Strengths of acids and bases. Ionization of weak acids and
    bases in aqueous solutions, application of Ostwald’s dilution law, ionization constants, ionic product of water, pH-scale, effect of temperature on pH, buffer solutions and their pH values, buffer action &
    buffer capacity; different types of buffers and Henderson’s equation.
  • Theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis:
    Volumetric Analysis: Equivalent weights, different types of solutions, normal and molar solutions.
    Primary and secondary standard substances.
    General principles of different types of titrations: i) acid-base, ii) redox, iii) complexometric, iv)
    Precipitation. Types of indicators – i) acid-base, ii) redox iii) metal-ion indicators.
  • Kinetic theory and the gaseous state:
    Kinetic theory of gases, average kinetic energy of translation, Boltzmann constant and
    absolute scale of temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds. Calculations of average,
    root mean square and most probable velocities. Collision diameter; collision number and mean free
    path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of effusion.
  • Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:
    First law and its applications to chemical problems. Thermodynamic functions. Total
    differentials and state functions. Free expansion, Joule-Thomson coefficient and inversion
    temperature. Hess’ law.
    Applications of Second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A),
    Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity of chemical
  • Solutions of non-electrolytes:
    Colligative properties of solutions, Raoult’s Law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, osmosis
    and osmotic pressure; elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point of solvents.
    Solubility of gases in liquids and solid solutions.
  • Electrochemistry:
    Cell constant, specific conductance and molar conductance. Kohlrausch’s law of independent
    migration of ions, ion conductance and ionic mobility. Equivalent and molar conductance at infinite
    dilution. Debye-Hückel theory. Application of conductance measurements. Conductometric
    titrations. Determination of transport number by moving boundary method.
  • Basic organic chemistry:
    Delocalized chemical bond, resonance, conjugation, hyperconjugation, hybridisation, orbital
    pictures of bonding sp3, sp2, sp: C-C, C-N and C-O system), bond polarization and bond
    polarizability. Reactive intermediates: General methods of formation, relative stability and reactivity
    of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.
  • Stereochemistry:
    Configuration and chirality (simple treatment of elements of symmetry), optical isomerism of
    compounds containing two to three stereogenic centres, R,S nomenclature, geometrical isomerism in
    compounds containing two C=C double bonds (E,Z naming), and simple cyclic systems, Newman
    projection (ethane and substituted ethane).
  • Types of organic reactions:                                                                                                                                               Aliphatic substitution reactions: SN1, SN2 mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in
    aliphatic substitutions. Effect of substrate structure, attacking nucleophile, leaving group and
    reaction medium and competitive reactions.
    Elimination reactions: E1, E2, mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic
    eliminations. Effect of substrate structure, attacking base, leaving group, reaction medium and
    competitive reactions, orientation of the double bond, Saytzeff and Hoffman rules.
    Addition reactions: Electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical addition reactions at carbon-carbon
    double bonds.
    Electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Electrophilic (halogenation, sulphonation,
    nitration, Friedal-Crafts alkylation and acylation), nucleophilic (simple SNAr, SN1 and aryne
  • Molecular Rearrangements:
    Acid induced rearrangement and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements. Neighbouring group

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Stage-II : Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination (Conventional Type Papers)

Stream-I : Scientist ‘B’(Hydrogeology)
Subject Marks  Time(minutes)
Paper-I : Geology 200 180
Paper-II : Geology 200 180
Paper-III : HydroGeology 200 180
Total 600
Stream-II : Scientist ‘B’ (Geophysics)
Subject  Marks  Time(minutes)
Paper-I : Geophysics 200 180
Paper-II : Geophysics 200 180
Paper-III : Geophysics 200 180
Total 600
Stream-III : Chemist & Scientist ‘B’ (Chemical)
Subject Marks  Time(minutes)
Paper-I : Chemistry 200 180
Paper-II : Chemistry 200 180
Paper-III : Chemistry 200 180
Total 600
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabusfor Geology : Paper-I
  • Section A. Physical geology and remote sensing
    Evolution of Earth; Earth’s internal structure; earthquakes and volcanoes; principles of geodesy,
    isostasy; weathering- processes and products; geomorphic landforms formed by action of rivers,
    wind, glaciers, waves and groundwater; features of ocean floor; continental shelf, slope and rise;
    concepts of landscape evolution; major geomorphic features of India- coastal, peninsular and extra
    Electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic bands in remote sensing; spectral signatures of soil,
    rock, water and vegetation; thermal, near infra-red and microwave remote sensing; digital image
    processing; LANDSAT, IRS and SPOT- characteristics and use; aerial photos- types, scale, parallax,
    relief displacement; elements of image interpretation.
  • Section B. Structural geology
    Principles of geological mapping; kinematic and dynamic analysis of deformation; stress-strain
    relationships for elastic, plastic and viscous materials; measurement of strain in deformed rocks;
    structural analysis of fold, cleavage, boudin, lineation, joint, and fault; stereographic projection of
    linear and planar structures; superposed deformation; deformation at microscale- dynamic and
    static recrystallisation, controls of strain rate and temperature on development of microfabrics;
    brittle and ductile shear zones; time relationship between crystallisation and deformation,
    calculation of paleostress.
  • Section C. Sedimentology
    Classification of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary textures-grain size, roundness, sphericity, shape
    and fabric; quantitative grain size analysis; sediment transport and deposition- fluid and sediment
    gravity flows, laminar and turbulent flows, Reynold’s number, Froude number, grain entrainment,
    Hjulstrom diagram, bed load and suspension load transport; primary sedimentary structures; penecontemporaneous deformation structure; biogenic structures; principles and application of
    paleocurrent analysis; composition and significance of different types of sandstone, limestone,
    banded iron formation, mudstone, conglomerate; carbonate diagenesis and dolomitisation;
    sedimentary environments and facies-facies models for fluvial, glacial, deltaic, siliciclastic shallow
    and deep marine environments; carbonate platforms- types and facies models; sedimentation in
    major tectonic settings; principles of sequence stratigraphy-concepts, and factors controlling base
    level changes, parasequence, clinoform, systems tract, unconformity and sequence boundary.
  • Section D. Paleontology
    Fossil record and geological time scale; modes of preservation of fossils and concept of taphonomy;
    body- and ichno-fossils, species concept, organic evolution, Ediacara Fauna; morphology and time
    range of Graptolites, Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Echinoids
    and Corals; evolutionary trends in Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods;
    micropaleontology- methods of preparation of microfossils, morphology of microfossil groups
    (Foraminifera, Ostracoda), fossil spores, pollen and dinoflagellates; Gondwana plant fossils and their
    significance; vertebrate life through ages, evolution in Proboscidea, Equidae and Hominidae;
    applications of paleontological data in stratigraphy, paleoecology, and paleoclimatology; mass
  • Section E. Stratigraphy
    Principles of stratigraphy-code of stratigraphic nomenclature of India; lithostratigraphy,
    biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy; principles of stratigraphic correlation;
    characteristics of Archean granite-greenstone belts; Indian stratigraphy- geological evolution of
    Archean nucleii (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum, Aravalli and Bundelkhand); Proterozoic mobile beltsEastern Ghats Mobile Belt, Southern Granulite Terrain, Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi
    Belt, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt; Proterozoic sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan);
    Phanerozoic stratigraphy- Paleozoic (Spiti, Kashmir and Kumaon), Mesozoic (Spiti, Kutch, Narmada
    Valley and Trichinopoly), Gondwana Supergroup, Cenozoic (Assam, Bengal basins, Garhwal-Shimla
    Himalayas); Siwaliks; boundary problems in Indian stratigraphy.
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Paper-II : Geology
  • Section A. Mineralogy
    Symmetry, motif, Miller indices; concept of unit cell and Bravais lattices; 32 crystal classes; types of
    bonding, Pauling’s rules and coordination polyhedra; crystal imperfections-defects, twinning and
    zoning; polymorphism, pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solution; physical properties of
    minerals; polarising microscope and accessory plate; optical properties of minerals- double
    refraction, polarisation, pleochroism, sign of elongation, interference figure and optic sign; structure,
    composition, physical and optical properties of major rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet,
    aluminosilicates, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, clay, silica and spinel group.
  • Section B. Geochemistry and isotope geology
    Chemical composition and characteristics of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere; geochemical
    cycles; meteorites-types and composition; Goldschmidt’s classification of elements; fractionation of
    elements in minerals/rocks; Nernst’s partition coefficient (compatible and incompatible elements),
    Nernst-Berthelot partition coefficient and bulk partition coefficient; Fick’s laws of diffusion and
    activity composition relation (Roult’s and Henry’s law); application of trace elements in petrogenesis;
    principles of equilibrium and Rayleigh fractionation; REE patterns, Eh and pH diagrams and mineral
    Half-life and decay equation; dating of minerals and rocks with potassium-argon, rubidiumstrontium, uranium-lead and samarium-neodymium isotopes; petrogenetic implications of
    samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium systems; stable isotope geochemistry of carbon,
    oxygen and sulphur and their applications in geology; monazite chemical dating.
  • Section C. Igneous petrology
    Viscosity, temperature and pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and
    volcanic rocks; nucleation and growth of minerals in magmatic rocks, development of igneous
    textures; magmatic evolution (differentiation, assimilation, mixing and mingling); types of mantle
    melting (batch, fractional and dynamic); binary (albite-anorthite, forsterite-silica and diopsideanorthite) and ternary (diopside-forsterite-silica, diopside-forsterite-anorthite and nephelinekalsilite-silica) phase diagrams and relevance to magmatic crystallization; petrogenesis of granites,
    basalts, ophiolite suite, komatiites, syenites, boninites, anorthosites and layered complexes, and
    alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre); mantle metasomatism, hotspot
    magmatism and large igneous provinces of India.
  • Section D. Metamorphic petrology
    Limits and physico-chemical controls (pressure, temperature, fluids and bulk rock composition) of
    metamorphism; concept of zones, facies, isograds and facies series, geothermal gradients and
    tectonics of orogenic belts; structures, micro-structures and textures of regional and contact
    metamorphic rocks; representation of metamorphic assemblages (ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams);
    equilibrium concept in thermodynamics; laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy, entropy, Gibb’s free
    energy, chemical potential, fugacity and activity; tracing the chemical reactions in P-T space, phase
    rule and mineralogical phase rule in multi-component system; Claussius-Clapeyron equation and
    slopes of metamorphic reactions; heat flow, diffusion and mass transfer; Fourier’s law of heat
    conduction; geothermobarometry; mass and energy change during fluid-rock interactions;
    charnockite problem, formation of skarns, progressive and retrogressive metamorphism of pelitic,
    calcareous and basic rocks; P-T-t path and tectonic setting.
  • Section E. Geodynamics
    Phase transitions and seismic discontinuities in the Earth; seismic waves and relation between Vp,
    Vs and density; seismic and petrological Moho; rheology of rocks and fluids (Newtonian and nonNewtonian liquids); rock magnetism and its origin; polarity reversals, polar wandering and
    supercontinent cycles; continental drift, sea floor spreading; gravity and magnetic anomalies of
    ocean floors and their significance; mantle plumes and their origin; plate tectonics- types of plate
    boundaries and their inter-relationship; heat flow and heat production of the crust.
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Paper-III : Hydrogeology
  • Section A. Occurrence and distribution of groundwater
    Origin of water on Earth; global water cycle and budget; residence time concept, geologic formations
    as aquifers; confined and unconfined aquifers; groundwater table mapping and piezometric nests;
    porosity, void ratio, effective porosity and representative porosity range; primary and secondary
    porosities; groundwater zonation; specific retention, specific yield; groundwater basins; springs.
  • Section B. Groundwater movement and well hydraulics
    Groundwater flow concepts; Darcy’s Law in isotropic and anisotropic media and validity; water flow
    rates, direction and water volume in aquifers; permeability and hydraulic conductivity and ranges in
    representative rocks; Bernoulli equation; determination of hydraulic conductivity in field and
    laboratory; concept of groundwater flow through dispersion and diffusion; transmissivity and aquifer
  • Section C. Water wells and groundwater levels
    Unidirectional and radial flow to a well (steady and unsteady); well flow near aquifer boundaries;
    methods for constructing shallow wells, drilling wells, well completion; testing wells, pumping test,
    slug tests for confined and unconfined aquifers; fluctuations in groundwater levels; stream flow and
    groundwater flows; groundwater level fluctuations; land subsidence; impact of global climate change
    on groundwater.
  • Section D. Groundwater exploration
    Surface investigation of groundwater- geologic, remote sensing, electrical resistivity, seismic, gravity
    and magnetic methods; sub-surface investigation of groundwater- test drilling, resistivity logging,
    spontaneous potential logging, radiation logging.
  • Section E. Groundwater quality and management
    Groundwater composition, units of expression, mass-balance calculations; rock-water interaction
    (chemical equilibrium, free energy, redox reactions and cation/anion exchanges), graphic
    representation of chemical data; groundwater hardness, microorganisms in groundwater; water
    quality standards; sea-water intrusion; groundwater issues due to urbanization; solid and liquid
    waste disposal and plume migration models; application of isotopes (H, C, O) in groundwater;
    concepts of artificial recharge methods; managing groundwater resources; groundwater basin
    investigations and management practices.
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus Paper-I : Geophysics


  • A1. Solid Earth Geophysics:
    Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar system: origin, characteristics of planets, Earth:
    rotation and figure, Geoid, Spheroid and topography. Plate tectonics and Geodynamic processes,
    Thermal history and heat flow, Temperature variation in the earth, convection currents. Gravity field
    of earth and Isostasy. Geomagnetism, elements of earth’s magnetism: Internal and External fields
    and their causes, Paleomagnetism, Polar wandering paths, Continental drift, Seafloor spreading and
    its geophysical evidences. Elastic Waves, Body Waves and internal structure of earth, variation of
    physical properties in the interior of earth, Adam-Williamson’s Equation.
  • A2. Earthquake Seismology:
    Seismology, earthquakes, focal depth, epicenter, great Indian earthquakes, Intensity and Magnitude
    scales, Energy of earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, Elastic rebound theory, Types and Nature of
    faulting, Fault plane solutions, Seismicity and Seismotectonics of India, Frequency-Magnitude
    relation (b-values). Bulk and rigidity modulus, Lame’s Parameter, Seismic waves: types and their
    propagation characteristics, absorption, attenuation and dispersion. Seismic ray theory for
    spherically and horizontally stratified earth, basic principles of Seismic Tomography and receiver
    function analysis, Velocity structure, Vp/Vs studies, Seismic network and arrays, telemetry systems,
    Principle of electromagnetic seismograph, displacement meters, velocity meters, accelerometers,
    Broadband Seismometer, WWSSN stations, seismic arrays for detection of nuclear explosions.
    Earthquake prediction; dilatancy theory, short-, medium- and long- term predictions, Seismic
    microzonations, Applications for engineering problems.
  • A3. Mathematical methods in Geophysics:
    Elements of vector analysis, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s
    theorem, Gravitational field, Newton’s Law of gravitation, Gravitation potential and fields due to
    bodies of different geometric shapes, Coulomb’s law, Electrical permittivity and dielectric constant,
    Origin of Magnetic field, Ampere’s law, Biot and Savart’s law, Geomagnetic fields, Magnetic fields due
    to different type of structures, Solution of Laplace equation in Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical
    Coordinates, Image theory, Electrical fields due to charge, point source, continuous charge
    distribution and double layers, equipotential and line of force. Current and potential in the earth,
    basic concept and equations of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s Equation, near and far fields,
    Attenuation of EM waves, EM field of a loops of wire on half space and multi-layered media.
  • A4. Geophysical Inversion:
    Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition and its application to Geophysics. Probability,
    Inversion with discrete and continuous models. Forward problems versus Inverse problems, direct
    and model based inversions, Formulation of inverse problems, classification of inverse problems,
    least square solutions and minimum norm solution, concept of norms, Jacobian matrix, Condition
    number, Stability, non-uniqueness and resolution of inverse problems, concept of ‘a priori’
    information, constrained linear least squares inversion, review of matrix theory. Models and data
    spaces, data resolution matrix, model resolution matrix, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, singular
    value decomposition (SVD), Gauss Newton method, steepest descent (gradient) method, MarquardtLevenberg method. Probabilistic approach of inverse problems, maximum likelihood and stochastic
    inverse methods, Random search inversion (Monte-Carlo) Backus-Gilbert method, Bayesian
    Theorem and Inversion. Global optimization techniques: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing


  • B1. Mathematical Methods of Physics:
    Dimensional analysis; Units and measurement; Vector algebra and vector calculus; Linear algebra,
    Matrices: Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second
    order; Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre); Fourier series, Fourier and
    Laplace transforms; Elementary probability theory, Random variables, Binomial, Poisson and normal
    distributions; Green’s function; Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in
    two and three dimensions); Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions, interpolation, and
    extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, solution of first order differential
    equation using Runge-Kutta method; Tensors; Complex variables and analysis; Analytic functions;
    Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues and evaluation of integrals; Beta and Gamma functions.
    Operators and their properties; Least-squares fitting.
  • B2. Electrodynamics:
    Electrostatics: Gauss’ Law and its applications; Laplace and Poisson equations, Boundary value
    problems; Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s theorem; Ampere’s circuital law; Magnetic
    vector potential; Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction; Electromagnetic vector and scalar
    potentials; Uniqueness of electromagnetic potentials and concept of gauge: Lorentz and Coulomb
    gauges; Lorentz force; Charged particles in uniform and non-uniform electric and magnetic fields;
    Poynting theorem; Electromagnetic fields from Lienard-Wiechert potential of a moving charge;
    Bremsstrahlung radiation; Cerenkov radiation; Radiation due to oscillatory electric dipole; Condition
    for plasma existence; Occurrence of plasma; Magnetohydrodynamics; Plasma waves; Transformation
    of electromagnetic potentials; Lorentz condition; Invariance or covariance of Maxwell field equations
    in terms of 4 vectors; Electromagnetic field tensor; Lorentz transformation of electric and magnetic
  • B3. Electromagnetic Theory:
    Maxwell’s equations: its differential and integral forms, physical significance; Displacement current;
    Boundary conditions; Wave equation, Plane electromagnetic waves in: free space, non-conducting
    isotropic medium, conducting medium; Scalar and vector potentials; Reflection; refraction of
    electromagnetic waves; Fresnel’s Law; interference; coherence; diffraction and polarization; Lorentz
    invariance of Maxwell’s equations; Transmission lines and waveguides.
  • B4. Introductory Atmospheric and Space Physics:
    The neutral atmosphere; Atmospheric nomenclature; Height profile of atmosphere; Hydrostatic
    equation; Geopotential height; Expansion and contraction; Fundamental forces in the atmosphere;
    Apparent forces; Atmospheric composition; Solar radiation interaction with the neutral atmosphere;
    Climate change; Electromagnetic radiation and propagation of Waves: EM Radiation; Effects of
    environment; Antennas: basic considerations, types. Propagation of waves: ground wave, sky wave,
    and space wave propagation; troposcatter communication and extra terrestrial communication; The
    Ionosphere; Morphology of ionosphere: the D, E and F-regions; Chemistry of the ionosphere
    Ionospheric parameters E and F region anomalies and irregularities in the ionosphere; Global
    Positioning Systems (GPS): overview of GPS system, augmentation services GPS system segment;
    GPS signal characteristics; GPS errors; multi path effects; GPS performance; Satellite navigation
    system and applications.
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus Paper-II : Geophysics


  • A1. Potential Field (Gravity and Magnetic) Methods:
    Geophysical potential fields, Inverse square law, Principles of Gravity and Magnetic methods, Global
    gravity anomalies, Newtonian and logarithmic potential, Laplace’s equations for potential field.
    Green’s Function, Concept of gravity anomaly, Rock densities, factors controlling rock densities,
    determination of density, Earth’s main magnetic field, origin, diurnal and secular variations of the
    field, Geomagnetic elements, intensity of magnetization and induction, magnetic potential and its
    relation to field, units of measurement, interrelationship between different components of magnetic
    fields, Poisson’s relation, Magnetic susceptibility, factors controlling susceptibility. Magnetic
    Mineralogy: Hysteresis, rock magnetism, natural, and remnant magnetization, demagnetization
    effects. Principles of Gravity and Magnetic instruments, Plan of conducting gravity and magnetic
    surveys, Gravity and Magnetic data reduction, Gravity bases, International Gravity formula, IGRF
    corrections. Concept of regional and residual anomalies and various methods of their separation,
    Edge Enhancement Techniques (Derivatives, Continuation, Analytical Signal, Reduced to Pole and
    Euler Deconvolution), ambiguity in potential field interpretation, Factors affecting magnetic
    anomalies, Application of gravity and magnetics in geodynamic, mineral exploration and
    environmental studies. Qualitative interpretation, Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies
    due to different geometry shaped bodies and modeling.
  • A2. Electrical and Electromagnetic methods:
    Electrical properties of rocks and minerals, concepts and assumptions of horizontally stratified
    earth, anisotropy and its effects on electrical fields, geoelectric and geological sections, D.C
    Resistivity method. Concept of natural electric field, various electrode configurations, Profiling and
    Sounding (VES). Tpes of Sounding curves, Equivalence and Suppression, Concept of Electrical
    Resistivity Tomography (ERT). SP Method:, Origin of SP, application of SP surveys. Induced
    Polarization (IP) Method: Origin of IP, Membrane and Electrode polarization, time and frequency
    domains of measurement, chargeability, percent frequency effect and metal factor, Application of IP
    surveys for mineral exploration. Electromagnetic methods, Passive and Active source methods,
    Diffusion equation, wave equation and damped wave equation used in EM method, boundary
    conditions, skin depth, depth of investigation and depth of penetration, amplitude and phase
    relations, real and imaginary components, elliptical polarization, Principles of EM prospecting,
    various EM methods: Dip angle, Turam, moving source-receiver methods-horizontal loop (Slingram),
    AFMAG, and VLF.. Principles of Time Domain EM: INPUT method. EM Profiling and sounding,
    Interpretation of EM anomalies. Principle of EM scale modeling. Magnetotelluric methods: Origin and
    characteristics of MT fields, Instrumentation, Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic Modes,
    Static Shift. Dimensionality and Directionality analysis. Field Layout and interpretation of MT data
    and its applications. Principles of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR).
  • A3. Seismic Prospecting:
    Basic principles of seismic methods, Various factors affecting seismic velocities in rocks, Reflection,
    refraction and Energy partitioning at an interface, Geometrical spreading, Reflection and refraction
    of wave phenomena in a layered and dipping media. Seismic absorption and anisotropy, Multi
    channel seismic (CDP) data acquisition (2D and 3D), sources of energy, Geophones, geometry of
    arrays, different spread geometry, Instrumentation, digital recording. Different types of multiples,
    Travel time curves, corrections, Interpretation of data, bright spot, low velocity layer, Data
    processing, static and dynamic (NMO and DMO) corrections, shot-receiver gather, foldage,
    multiplexing and demultiplexing. Dix’s equation, Velocities: Interval, Average and RMS, Seismic
    resolution and Fresnel Zone, Velocity analysis and Migration techniques, Seismic Interpretation,
    Time and Depth Section, Fundamentals of VSP method, High Resolution Seismic Surveys (HRSS).
  • A4. Borehole Geophysics:
    Objectives of well logging, concepts of borehole geophysics, borehole conditions, properties of
    reservoir rock formations, formation parameters and their relationships-formation factor, porosity,
    permeability, formation water resistivity, water saturation, irreducible water saturation, hydrocarbon
    saturation, residual hydrocarbon saturation; Arhcie’s and Humble’s equations; principles,
    instrumentations, operational procedures and interpretations of various geophysical logs: SP,
    resistivity and micro resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, sonic, temperature, caliper and directional
    logs. Production logging, overlay and cross-plots of well-log data, determination of formation
    lithology, porosity, permeability and oil-water saturation, sub-surface correlation and mapping,
    delineation of fractures; application of well-logging in hydrocarbon, groundwater, coal, metallic and
    non-metallic mineral exploration.


  • B1. Classical Mechanics
    Inertial and non-inertial frames, Newton’s laws; Pseudo forces; Central force motion; Two-body
    collisions, Scattering in laboratory and centre-of-mass frames; Rigid body dynamics, Moment of
    inertia, Variational principle, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and equations of motion;
    Poisson brackets and canonical transformations; Symmetry, Invariance and conservation laws,
    Cyclic coordinates; Periodic motion, Small oscillations and normal modes; Special theory of
    relativity, Lorentz transformations, Relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence.
  • B2. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
    Laws of thermodynamics and their significance; Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations;
    Chemical potential, Phase equilibria; Phase space, Micro- and macro- states; Micro canonical,
    canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions; Free Energy and connection with
    thermodynamic quantities; First and second order phase transitions; Maxwell-Boltzmann
    distribution, Quantum statistics, Ideal Fermi and Bose gases; Principle of detailed balance;
    Blackbody radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; Random walk and
    Brownian motion; Diffusion equation.
  • B3. Atomic and Molecular Physics and Characterization of materials
    Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin; Stern-Gerlach experiment; Spectrum of
    Hydrogen, Helium and alkali atoms; Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen; Hyperfine
    structure and isotopic shift; Width of spectral lines; LS and JJ coupling; Zeeman, Paschen Back and
    Stark effects; Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules; FrankCondon principle; Thermal and optical properties of materials, Study of microstructure using SEM,
    Study of crystal structure using TEM, Resonance methods: Spin and applied magnetic field, Larmor
    precession, relaxation times – spin-spin relaxation, Spin-lattice relaxation, Electron spin resonance,
    g factor, Nuclear Magnetic resonance, line width, Motional narrowing, Hyperfine splitting; Nuclear
    Gamma Resonance: Principles of Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Line width, Resonance absorption,
    Isomer Shift, Quadrupole splitting.
  • B4. Nuclear and Particle Physics
    Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy, Packing
    fraction, Semi-empirical mass formula; Liquid drop model; Fission and fusion, Nuclear reactor; Line
    of stability, Characteristics of the nuclear forces, Nucleon-nucleon potential; Charge-independence
    and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces; Isospin; Deuteron problem; Evidence of shell structure,
    Single-particle shell model and, its validity and limitations; Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and
    gamma decays and their selection rules; Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanisms, compound nuclei
    and direct reactions; Classification of fundamental forces; Elementary particles (quarks, baryons,
    mesons, leptons); Spin and parity assignments, strangeness; Gell Mann-Nishijima formula; C, P and
    T invariance and applications of symmetry arguments to particle reactions, Parity non-conservation
    in weak interaction; Relativistic kinematics.
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus Paper-III : Geophysics


  • A1. Radiometric and Airborne Geophysics:
    Principles of radioactivity, radioactivity decay processes, units, radioactivity of rocks and minerals,
    Instruments, Ionization chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter, Gamma ray spectrometer,
    Radiometric prospecting for mineral exploration (Direct/Indirect applications), beach placers,
    titanium, zirconium and rare-earths, radon studies in seismology and environmental applications.
    Airborne geophysical surveys (gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric), planning of
    surveys, flight path recovery methods. Applications in geological mapping, identification of structural
    features and altered zones.
  • A2. Marine Geophysics:
    Salinity, temperature and density of sea water. Introduction to Sea-floor features: Physiography,
    divisions of sea floor, continental shelves, slopes, and abyssal plains, growth and decline of ocean
    basins, turbidity currents, occurrence of mineral deposits and hydrocarbons in offshore.
    Geophysical surveys and instrumentation: Gravity, Magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, Sonobuoy
    surveys, Instrumentation used in ship borne surveys, towing cable and fish, data collection and
    survey procedures, corrections and interpretation of data. Oceanic magnetic anomalies, VineMathews hypothesis, geomagnetic time scale and dating sea floor, Oceanic heat flow, ocean ridges,
    basins, marginal basins, rift valleys. Seismic surveys, energy sources, Pinger, Boomer, Sparker, Air
    gun, Hydrophones and steamer cabling. Data reduction and interpretation. Ocean Bottom Seismic
    surveys. Bathymetry, echo sounding, bathymetric charts, sea bed mapping. Navigation and Position
    fixing methods.
  • A3. Geophysical Signal Processing:
    Time Series, Types of signals, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series of periodic waveforms,
    Fourier transform and its properties, Discrete Fourier transform and FFT, Hilbert Transform,
    Convolution and Deconvolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit
    step function. Time domain windows, Z transform and properties, Inverse Z transform. Poles and
    zeroes. Principles of digital filters, types of filters: recursive, non recursive, time invariant,
    Chebyshev, Butterworth, moving average, amplitude and phase response of filters, low pass, band
    pass and high pass filters. Processing of Random signals. Improvement of signal to noise ratio,
    source and geophone arrays as spatial filters. Earth as low pass filter.
  • A4. Remote Sensing and Geohydrology:
    Fundamental concepts of remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation spectrum, Interaction of
    electromagnetic energy and its interactions in atmosphere and surface of the earth, elements of
    photographic systems, reflectance and emittance, false color composites, remote sensing platforms,
    flight planning, geosynchronous and sun synchronous orbits, sensors, resolution, parallax and
    vertical exaggeration, relief displacement, mosaic, aerial photo interpretation and geological
    application. Fundamentals of photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing, multi-spectral scanners,
    thermal scanners, microwave remote sensing, fundamental of image processing and interpretation
    for geological applications. Types of water bearing formations, porosity, permeability, storage
    coefficient, specific storage, specific retention, specific yield, Different types of aquifers, vertical
    distribution of ground water, General flow equation; steady and unsteady flow of ground water in
    unconfined and confined aquifers.


  • B1. Solid State Physics and Basic Electronics
    Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, Space groups; Methods of
    determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, Scanning and transmission electron
    microscopes; Band theory of solids, conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties
    of solids, Specific heat: Einstein’s and Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferro; Elements of
    superconductivity; Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications; Elementary ideas about
    high temperature superconductivity.
    Semiconductor devices and circuits: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors; Devices and structures
    (p-n junctions, diodes, transistors, FET, JFET and MOSFET, homo and hetero junction transistors,
    thermistors), Device characteristics, Frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic
    devices (solar cells, photo detectors, LEDs) Operational amplifiers and their applications.
  • B2. Laser systems
    Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation. Coherence, Light amplification and relation
    between Einstein A and B coefficients. Rate equations for three and four level systems. Lasers: Ruby,
    Nd-YAG, CO2, Dye, Excimer, Semiconductor. Laser cavity modes, Line shape function and full width
    at half maximum (FWHM) for natural broadening, collision broadening, Doppler broadening;
    Saturation behavior of broadened transitions, Longitudinal and transverse modes. Mode selection,
    ABCD matrices and cavity stability criteria for confocal resonators. Quality factor, Expression for
    intensity for modes oscillating at random and mode-locked in phase. Methods of Q-switching and
    mode locking. Optical fiber waveguides, Fiber characteristics.
  • B3. Digital electronics, Radar systems, Satellite communications
    Digital techniques and applications: Boolean identities, de Morgan’s theorems, Logic gates and truth
    tables; Simple logic circuits: registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A
    converters. Microprocessor: basics and architecture; Microcontroller basics. Combination and
    sequential logic circuits, Functional diagram, Timing diagram of read and write cycle, Data transfer
    techniques: serial and parallel. Fundamentals of digital computers. Radar systems, Signal and data
    processing, Surveillance radar, Tracking radar, Radar antenna parameters. Fundamentals of
    satellite systems, Communication and Orbiting satellites, Satellite frequency bands, Satellite orbit
    and inclinations. Earth station technology.
  • B4. Quantum Mechanics
    Wave-particle duality; Wave functions in coordinate and momentum representations; Commutators
    and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; Schrodinger’s wave equation (time-dependent and timeindependent); Eigenvalue problems: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, tunneling through a 1-D
    barrier; Motion in a central potential; Orbital angular momentum; Addition of angular momentum;
    Hydrogen atom; Matrix representation; Dirac’s bra and ket notations; Time-independent
    perturbation theory and applications; Variational method; WKB approximation; Time dependent
    perturbation theory and Fermi’s Golden Rule; Selection rules; Semi-classical theory of radiation;
    Elementary theory of scattering, Phase shifts, Partial waves, Born approximation; Identical particles,
    Pauli’s exclusion principle, Spin-statistics connection; Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein
    Gordon and Dirac equations.
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Chemistry : Paper-I (Inorganic Chemistry)
  • Inorganic solids:
    Defects, non-stoichiometric compounds and solid solutions, atom and ion diffusion, solid
    electrolytes. Synthesis of materials, monoxides of 3d-metals, higher oxides, complex oxides
    (corundrum, ReO3, spinel, pervoskites), framework structures (phosphates, aluminophosphates,
    silicates, zeolites), nitrides and fluorides, chalcogenides, intercalation chemistry, semiconductors,
    molecular materials.
  • Chemistry of coordination compounds:
    Isomerism, reactivity and stability: Determination of configuration of cis- and trans- isomers by
    chemical methods. Labile and inert complexes, substitution reactions on square planar complexes,
    trans effect. Stability constants of coordination compounds and their importance in inorganic
    Structure and bonding: Elementary Crystal Field Theory: splitting of dn configurations in
    octahedral, square planar and tetrahedral fields, crystal field stabilization energy, pairing energy.
    Jahn-Teller distortion. Metal-ligand bonding, sigma and pi bonding in octahedral complexes and
    their effects on the oxidation states of transition metals. Orbital and spin magnetic moments, spin
    only moments and their correlation with effective magnetic moments, d-d transitions; LS coupling,
    spectroscopic ground states, selection rules for electronic spectral transitions; spectrochemical
    series of ligands, charge transfer spectra.
  • Acid base titrations:
    Titration curves for strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base and weak base-strong acid
    titrations, polyprotic acids, poly-equivalent bases, determining the equivalence point: theory of acidbase indicators, pH change range of indicator, selection of proper indicator. Principles used in
    estimation of mixtures of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 (by acidimetry).
  • Gravimetric Analysis:
    General principles: Solubility, solubility product and common ion effect, effect of temperature on the
    solubility; Salt hydrolysis, hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis.
    Stoichiometry, calculation of results from gravimetric data. Properties of precipitates. Nucleation and
    crystal growth, factors influencing completion of precipitation. Co-precipitation and post-
    precipitation, purification and washing of precipitates. Precipitation from homogeneous solution. A
    few common gravimetric estimations: chloride as silver chloride, sulphate as barium sulphate,
    aluminium as oxinate and nickel as dimethyl glyoximate.
  • Redox Titrations:
    Standard redox potentials, Nernst equation. Influence of complex formation, precipitation and
    change of pH on redox potentials, Normal Hydrogen Electrode (NHE). Feasibility of a redox titration,
    redox potential at the equivalence point, redox indicators. Redox potentials and their applications.
    Principles behind Iodometry, permanganometry, dichrometry, difference between iodometry and
    iodimetry. Principles of estimation of iron, copper, manganese, chromium by redox titration.
  • Complexometric titrations:
    Complex formation reactions, stability of complexes, stepwise formation constants, chelating agents.
    EDTA: acidic properties, complexes with metal ions, equilibrium calculations involving EDTA,
    conditional formation constants, derivation of EDTA titration curves, effect of other complexing
    agents, factors affecting the shape of titration curves: indicators for EDTA titrations, titration
    methods employing EDTA: direct, back and displacement titrations, indirect determinations,
    titration of mixtures, selectivity, masking and demasking agents. Typical applications of EDTA
    titrations: hardness of water, magnesium and aluminium in antacids, magnesium, manganese and
    zinc in a mixture, titrations involving unidentate ligands: titration of chloride with Hg2+ and cyanide
    with Ag+.
  • Organometallic compounds:
    18-electron rule and its applications to carbonyls and nature of bonding involved therein. Simple
    examples of metal-metal bonded compounds and metal clusters. Wilkinson’s catalyst.
  • Nuclear chemistry:
    Radioactive decay- General characteristics, decay kinetics, parent-daughter decay growth
    relationships, determination of half-lives. Nuclear stability. Decay theories. Unit of radioactivity.
    Preparation of artificial radionuclides by bombardment, radiochemical separation techniques.
    Experimental techniques in the assay of radioisotopes, Geiger-Muller counters. Solid state detectors.
  • Chemistry of d- and f-block elements:
    d-block elements: General comparison of 3d, 4d and 5d elements in terms of electronic
    configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, atomization energy, oxidation states, redox
    properties, coordination chemistry, spectral and magnetic properties.
    f-block elements: Electronic configuration, ionization enthalpies, oxidation states, variation in
    atomic and ionic (3+) radii, magnetic and spectral properties of lanthanides, separation of
    lanthanides (by ion-exchange method).
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Chemistry : Paper-II (Physical Chemistry)
  • Kinetic theory and the gaseous state:
    Real gases, Deviation of gases from ideal behaviour; compressibility factor; van der Waals equation
    of state and its characteristic features. Existence of critical state. Critical constants in terms of van
    der Waals constants. Law of corresponding states and significance of second virial coefficient. Boyle
  • Solids: Nature of solid state. Band theory of solids: Qualitative idea of band theory, conducting,
    semiconducting and insulating properties.
    Law of constancy of angles, concept of unit cell, different crystal systems, Bravais lattices, law of
    rational indices, Miller indices, symmetry elements in crystals. X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law.
  • Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:
    Chemical potential in terms of Gibbs energy and other thermodynamic state functions and its
    variation with temperature and pressure. Gibbs-Duhem equation; fugacity of gases and fugacity
    coefficient. Thermodynamic conditions for equilibrium, degree of advancement. vant Hoff’s reaction
    isotherm. Equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs energy change. Definitions of KP, KC and Kx;
    vant Hoff’s reaction isobar and isochore. Activity and activity coefficients of electrolytes / ions in
    solution. Debye-Hückel limiting law.
  • Chemical kinetics and catalysis:
    Second order reactions. Determination of order of reactions. Parallel and consecutive reactions.
    Temperature dependence of reaction rate, energy of activation. Collision Theory and Transition State
    Theory of reaction rates. Enthalpy of activation, entropy of activation, effect of dielectric constant
    and ionic strength on reaction rate, kinetic isotope effect.
    Physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption
    isotherms, BET equation, surface area determination; colloids, electrical double layer and colloid
    stability, electrokinetic phenomenon. Elementary ideas about soaps and detergents, micelles,
  • Electrochemistry:
    Types of electrochemical cells, cell reactions, emf and Nernst equation, ᐃG, ᐃH and ᐃS of cell
    reactions. Cell diagrams and IUPAC conventions. Standard cells. Half-cells / electrodes, types of
    reversible electrodes. Standard electrode potential and principles of its determination. Concentration
    cells. Determination of ᐃGº, Kº, Ksp and pH.
    Basic principles of pH metric and potentiometric titrations, determination of equivalence point and
    pKa values.
  • Quantum chemistry:
    Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Uncertainty relation, Expectation value. Hermitian operators.
    Schrödinger time-independent equation: nature of the equation, acceptability conditions imposed on
    the wave functions and probability interpretation of wave function. Schrödinger equation for particle
    in a one-dimensional box and its solution. Comparison with free particle eigenfunctions and
    eigenvalues. Particle in a 3-D box and concept of degeneracy.
  • Basic principles and applications of spectroscopy:
    Electromagnetic radiation, interaction with atoms and molecules and quantization of different forms
    of energies. Units of frequency, wavelength and wavenumber. Condition of resonance and energy of
    absorption for various types of spectra; origin of atomic spectra, spectrum of hydrogen atom.
    Rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Rigid rotor model, selection rules, spectrum,
    characteristic features of spectral lines. Determination of bond length, effect of isotopic substitution.
    Vibrational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Simple Harmonic Oscillator model, selection
    rules and vibration spectra. Molecular vibrations, factors influencing vibrational frequencies.
    Overtones, anharmonicity, normal mode analysis of polyatomic molecules.
    Raman Effect: Characteristic features and conditions of Raman activity with suitable illustrations.
    Rotational and vibrational Raman spectra.
  • Photochemistry:
    Franck-Condon principle and vibrational structure of electronic spectra. Bond dissociation and
    principle of determination of dissociation energy. Decay of excited states by radiative and nonradiative paths. Fluorescence and phosphorescence, Jablonski diagram. Laws of photochemistry:
    Grotthus-Draper law, Stark-Einstein law of photochemical equivalence; quantum yield and its
    measurement for a photochemical process, actinometry. Photostationary state. Photosensitized
    reactions. Kinetics of HI decomposition, H2-Br2 reaction, dimerisation of anthracene.
UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Chemistry : Paper-III (Analytical and Organic)

PART-A (Analytical Chemistry)

  • A1. Errors in quantitative analysis:
    Accuracy and precision, sensitivity, specific standard deviation in analysis, classification of errors
    and their minimization, significant figures, criteria for rejection of data, Q-test, t-test, and F-test,
    control chart, sampling methods, sampling errors, standard reference materials, statistical data
  • A2. Separation Methods:
    Chromatographic analysis: Basic principles of chromatography (partition, adsorption and ion
    exchange), column chromatography, plate concept, plate height (HETP), normal phase and reversed
    phase concept, thin layer chromatography, frontal analysis, principles of High Performance Liquid
    Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC), and Ion-exchange chromatography.
    Solvent extraction: Classification, principle and efficiency of the technique, mechanism of
    extraction, extraction by solvation and chelation, qualitative and quantitative aspects of solvent
    extraction, extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions.
  • A3. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:
    Lambert-Beer’s Law and its limitations.
    UV-Visible Spectroscopy: Basic principles of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Instrumentation consisting
    of source, monochromator, grating and detector, spectrophotometric determinations (estimation of
    metal ions from aqueous solutions, determination of composition of metal complexes using Job’s
    method of continuous variation and mole ratio method).
    Infra-red Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator and
    detector) for single and double beam instruments, sampling techniques.
    Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice
    of source, monochromator, detector, choice of flame and burner design), techniques of atomization
    and sample introduction, method of background correction, sources of chemical interferences and
    methods of removal, techniques for the quantitative estimation of trace level metal ions. Basic
    principles and theory of AAS. Three different modes of AAS – Flame-AAS, VG-AAS, and GF-AAS.
    Single beam and double beam AAS. Function of Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) and Electrode
    Discharge Lamp (EDL). Different types of detectors used in AAS. Qualitative and quantitative
  • A4. Thermal methods of analysis:
    Theory of thermogravimetry (TG), basic principle of instrumentation, techniques for quantitative
    analysis of Ca and Mg compounds.
  • A5. X-ray methods of Analysis:
    Introduction, theory of X-ray generation, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray
    fluorescence methods, instrumentation and applications. Qualitative and quantitative
    measurements. Powder diffraction method.
  • A6. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy:
    Theory and principles, plasma generation, utility of peristaltic pump, sampler–skimmer systems, ion
    lens, quadrupole mass analyzer, dynode / solid state detector, different types of interferencesspectroscopic and non-spectroscopic interferences, isobaric and molecular interferences,
  • A7. Analysis of geological materials:
    Analysis of minerals and ores- estimation of (i) CaCO3, MgCO3 in dolomite (ii) Fe2O3, Al2O3, and TiO2
    in bauxite (iii) MnO and MnO2 in pyrolusite. Analysis of metals and alloys: (i) Cu and Zn in brass (ii)
    Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al and Ni in bronze (iii) Cr, Mn, Ni, and P in steel (iv) Pb, Sb, Sn in ‘type metal’.
    Introduction to petroleum: constituents and petroleum fractionation. Analysis of petroleum
    products: specific gravity, viscosity, Doctor test, aniline point, colour determination, cloud point,
    pour point. Determination of water, neutralization value (acid and base numbers), ash content,
    Determination of lead in petroleum.
    Types of coal and coke, composition, preparation of sample for proximate and ultimate analysis,
    calorific value by bomb calorimetry.

PART B (Organic chemistry)

  • B1. Unstable, uncharged intermediates:
    Structure and reactivity of carbenes and nitrenes and their rearrangements (Reimer-Tiemann,
    Hoffman, Curtius, Lossen, and Schimdt,).
  • B2. Addition reactions:
    Addition to C-C multiple bonds: Mechanism of addition involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and
    free radicals (polymerization reactions of alkenes and substituted alkenes), Ziegler-Natta catalyst for
    polymerization, polyurethane, and conducting polymers; addition to conjugated systems (Diels-Alder
    reaction), orientation and reactivity (on simple cis- and trans- alkenes).
    Addition to carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds: Addition to C=O double bond, structure and
    reactivity, hydration, addition of ROH, RSH, CN-, bisulphite, amine derivatives, hydride ions.
  • B3: Reactions at the carbonyl group:
    Cannizzaro, Aldol, Perkin, Claisen ester, benzoin, benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement, Mannich,
    Dieckmann, Michael, Strobe, Darzen, Wittig, Doebner, Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reactions.
  • B4. Oxidation and Reduction:
    Reduction of C=C, Meerwein-Pondorf reaction, Wolff-Kishner and Birch reduction.
    Oxidation of C=C, hydration, hydroxylation, hydroboration, ozonolysis, epoxidation, Sharpless
  • B5. Electrocyclic Reactions:
    Molecular orbital symmetry, frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3,5-hexatriene, allyl
    system, FMO approach, pericyclic reactions, Woodward-Hoffman correlation diagram method and
    perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) approach for the explanation of pericyclic reactions under
    thermal and photochemical conditions. Simple cases of Norrish type-I and type-II reactions.
    Conrotatory and disrotatory motions of (4n) and (4n+2) polyenes with emphasis on [2+2] and [4+2]
    cycloadditions, sigmatropic rearrangements- shift of H and carbon moieties, Claisen, Cope,
    Sommerlet-Hauser rearrangement.
  • B6. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:
    Infrared spectroscopy: Characteristic frequencies of organic molecules and interpretation of
    spectra. Modes of molecular vibrations, characteristic stretching frequencies of O-H, N-H, C-H, C-D,
    C=C, C=N, C=O functions; factors affecting stretching frequencies.
    Ultraviolet spectroscopy: Chromophores, auxochromes. Electronic transitions (σ−σ*, n-σ*, π-π*
    and n-π*), relative positions of λmax considering conjugative effect, steric effect, solvent effect, red
    shift (bathochromic shift), blue shift (hypsochromic shift), hyperchromic effect, hypochromic effect
    (typical examples). Woodward rules. Applications of UV spectroscopy to conjugated dienes, trienes,
    unsaturated carbonyl compounds and aromatic compounds.
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry: (Proton and Carbon-13 NMR) Nuclear spin, NMR
    active nuclei, principle of proton magnetic resonance, equivalent and non-equivalent protons.
    Measurement of spectra, the chemical shift, shielding / deshielding of protons, upfield and downfield
    shifts, intensity of NMR signals and integration factors affecting the chemical shifts: spin-spin
    coupling to 13C I
    H first order coupling: some simple I
    H splitting patterns: the magnitude of I
    H coupling constants, diamagnetic anisotropy.
    Mass spectrometry: Basic Principles, the mass spectrometer, isotope abundances; the molecular
    ion, metastable ions. McLafferty rearrangement.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus 2023

Question- What is the examination fee for the exam?

Answer- The examination fee is Rs 200

Question- How many question papers are there in this exam?

Answer- There are two papers in the Preliminary phase exam and three papers in the Main exam.

Question-What is the nature of questions?

Answer- Questions in the Preliminary phase exam will be of objective type and questions in the Main phase exam will be of descriptive type

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