|UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus Paper-II : Geophysics
- A1. Potential Field (Gravity and Magnetic) Methods:
Geophysical potential fields, Inverse square law, Principles of Gravity and Magnetic methods, Global
gravity anomalies, Newtonian and logarithmic potential, Laplace’s equations for potential field.
Green’s Function, Concept of gravity anomaly, Rock densities, factors controlling rock densities,
determination of density, Earth’s main magnetic field, origin, diurnal and secular variations of the
field, Geomagnetic elements, intensity of magnetization and induction, magnetic potential and its
relation to field, units of measurement, interrelationship between different components of magnetic
fields, Poisson’s relation, Magnetic susceptibility, factors controlling susceptibility. Magnetic
Mineralogy: Hysteresis, rock magnetism, natural, and remnant magnetization, demagnetization
effects. Principles of Gravity and Magnetic instruments, Plan of conducting gravity and magnetic
surveys, Gravity and Magnetic data reduction, Gravity bases, International Gravity formula, IGRF
corrections. Concept of regional and residual anomalies and various methods of their separation,
Edge Enhancement Techniques (Derivatives, Continuation, Analytical Signal, Reduced to Pole and
Euler Deconvolution), ambiguity in potential field interpretation, Factors affecting magnetic
anomalies, Application of gravity and magnetics in geodynamic, mineral exploration and
environmental studies. Qualitative interpretation, Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies
due to different geometry shaped bodies and modeling.
- A2. Electrical and Electromagnetic methods:
Electrical properties of rocks and minerals, concepts and assumptions of horizontally stratified
earth, anisotropy and its effects on electrical fields, geoelectric and geological sections, D.C
Resistivity method. Concept of natural electric field, various electrode configurations, Profiling and
Sounding (VES). Tpes of Sounding curves, Equivalence and Suppression, Concept of Electrical
Resistivity Tomography (ERT). SP Method:, Origin of SP, application of SP surveys. Induced
Polarization (IP) Method: Origin of IP, Membrane and Electrode polarization, time and frequency
domains of measurement, chargeability, percent frequency effect and metal factor, Application of IP
surveys for mineral exploration. Electromagnetic methods, Passive and Active source methods,
Diffusion equation, wave equation and damped wave equation used in EM method, boundary
conditions, skin depth, depth of investigation and depth of penetration, amplitude and phase
relations, real and imaginary components, elliptical polarization, Principles of EM prospecting,
various EM methods: Dip angle, Turam, moving source-receiver methods-horizontal loop (Slingram),
AFMAG, and VLF.. Principles of Time Domain EM: INPUT method. EM Profiling and sounding,
Interpretation of EM anomalies. Principle of EM scale modeling. Magnetotelluric methods: Origin and
characteristics of MT fields, Instrumentation, Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic Modes,
Static Shift. Dimensionality and Directionality analysis. Field Layout and interpretation of MT data
and its applications. Principles of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR).
- A3. Seismic Prospecting:
Basic principles of seismic methods, Various factors affecting seismic velocities in rocks, Reflection,
refraction and Energy partitioning at an interface, Geometrical spreading, Reflection and refraction
of wave phenomena in a layered and dipping media. Seismic absorption and anisotropy, Multi
channel seismic (CDP) data acquisition (2D and 3D), sources of energy, Geophones, geometry of
arrays, different spread geometry, Instrumentation, digital recording. Different types of multiples,
Travel time curves, corrections, Interpretation of data, bright spot, low velocity layer, Data
processing, static and dynamic (NMO and DMO) corrections, shot-receiver gather, foldage,
multiplexing and demultiplexing. Dix’s equation, Velocities: Interval, Average and RMS, Seismic
resolution and Fresnel Zone, Velocity analysis and Migration techniques, Seismic Interpretation,
Time and Depth Section, Fundamentals of VSP method, High Resolution Seismic Surveys (HRSS).
- A4. Borehole Geophysics:
Objectives of well logging, concepts of borehole geophysics, borehole conditions, properties of
reservoir rock formations, formation parameters and their relationships-formation factor, porosity,
permeability, formation water resistivity, water saturation, irreducible water saturation, hydrocarbon
saturation, residual hydrocarbon saturation; Arhcie’s and Humble’s equations; principles,
instrumentations, operational procedures and interpretations of various geophysical logs: SP,
resistivity and micro resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, sonic, temperature, caliper and directional
logs. Production logging, overlay and cross-plots of well-log data, determination of formation
lithology, porosity, permeability and oil-water saturation, sub-surface correlation and mapping,
delineation of fractures; application of well-logging in hydrocarbon, groundwater, coal, metallic and
non-metallic mineral exploration.
- B1. Classical Mechanics
Inertial and non-inertial frames, Newton’s laws; Pseudo forces; Central force motion; Two-body
collisions, Scattering in laboratory and centre-of-mass frames; Rigid body dynamics, Moment of
inertia, Variational principle, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and equations of motion;
Poisson brackets and canonical transformations; Symmetry, Invariance and conservation laws,
Cyclic coordinates; Periodic motion, Small oscillations and normal modes; Special theory of
relativity, Lorentz transformations, Relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence.
- B2. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
Laws of thermodynamics and their significance; Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations;
Chemical potential, Phase equilibria; Phase space, Micro- and macro- states; Micro canonical,
canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions; Free Energy and connection with
thermodynamic quantities; First and second order phase transitions; Maxwell-Boltzmann
distribution, Quantum statistics, Ideal Fermi and Bose gases; Principle of detailed balance;
Blackbody radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; Random walk and
Brownian motion; Diffusion equation.
- B3. Atomic and Molecular Physics and Characterization of materials
Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin; Stern-Gerlach experiment; Spectrum of
Hydrogen, Helium and alkali atoms; Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen; Hyperfine
structure and isotopic shift; Width of spectral lines; LS and JJ coupling; Zeeman, Paschen Back and
Stark effects; Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules; FrankCondon principle; Thermal and optical properties of materials, Study of microstructure using SEM,
Study of crystal structure using TEM, Resonance methods: Spin and applied magnetic field, Larmor
precession, relaxation times – spin-spin relaxation, Spin-lattice relaxation, Electron spin resonance,
g factor, Nuclear Magnetic resonance, line width, Motional narrowing, Hyperfine splitting; Nuclear
Gamma Resonance: Principles of Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Line width, Resonance absorption,
Isomer Shift, Quadrupole splitting.
- B4. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy, Packing
fraction, Semi-empirical mass formula; Liquid drop model; Fission and fusion, Nuclear reactor; Line
of stability, Characteristics of the nuclear forces, Nucleon-nucleon potential; Charge-independence
and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces; Isospin; Deuteron problem; Evidence of shell structure,
Single-particle shell model and, its validity and limitations; Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and
gamma decays and their selection rules; Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanisms, compound nuclei
and direct reactions; Classification of fundamental forces; Elementary particles (quarks, baryons,
mesons, leptons); Spin and parity assignments, strangeness; Gell Mann-Nishijima formula; C, P and
T invariance and applications of symmetry arguments to particle reactions, Parity non-conservation
in weak interaction; Relativistic kinematics.
|UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus Paper-III : Geophysics
- A1. Radiometric and Airborne Geophysics:
Principles of radioactivity, radioactivity decay processes, units, radioactivity of rocks and minerals,
Instruments, Ionization chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter, Gamma ray spectrometer,
Radiometric prospecting for mineral exploration (Direct/Indirect applications), beach placers,
titanium, zirconium and rare-earths, radon studies in seismology and environmental applications.
Airborne geophysical surveys (gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric), planning of
surveys, flight path recovery methods. Applications in geological mapping, identification of structural
features and altered zones.
- A2. Marine Geophysics:
Salinity, temperature and density of sea water. Introduction to Sea-floor features: Physiography,
divisions of sea floor, continental shelves, slopes, and abyssal plains, growth and decline of ocean
basins, turbidity currents, occurrence of mineral deposits and hydrocarbons in offshore.
Geophysical surveys and instrumentation: Gravity, Magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, Sonobuoy
surveys, Instrumentation used in ship borne surveys, towing cable and fish, data collection and
survey procedures, corrections and interpretation of data. Oceanic magnetic anomalies, VineMathews hypothesis, geomagnetic time scale and dating sea floor, Oceanic heat flow, ocean ridges,
basins, marginal basins, rift valleys. Seismic surveys, energy sources, Pinger, Boomer, Sparker, Air
gun, Hydrophones and steamer cabling. Data reduction and interpretation. Ocean Bottom Seismic
surveys. Bathymetry, echo sounding, bathymetric charts, sea bed mapping. Navigation and Position
- A3. Geophysical Signal Processing:
Time Series, Types of signals, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series of periodic waveforms,
Fourier transform and its properties, Discrete Fourier transform and FFT, Hilbert Transform,
Convolution and Deconvolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit
step function. Time domain windows, Z transform and properties, Inverse Z transform. Poles and
zeroes. Principles of digital filters, types of filters: recursive, non recursive, time invariant,
Chebyshev, Butterworth, moving average, amplitude and phase response of filters, low pass, band
pass and high pass filters. Processing of Random signals. Improvement of signal to noise ratio,
source and geophone arrays as spatial filters. Earth as low pass filter.
- A4. Remote Sensing and Geohydrology:
Fundamental concepts of remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation spectrum, Interaction of
electromagnetic energy and its interactions in atmosphere and surface of the earth, elements of
photographic systems, reflectance and emittance, false color composites, remote sensing platforms,
flight planning, geosynchronous and sun synchronous orbits, sensors, resolution, parallax and
vertical exaggeration, relief displacement, mosaic, aerial photo interpretation and geological
application. Fundamentals of photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing, multi-spectral scanners,
thermal scanners, microwave remote sensing, fundamental of image processing and interpretation
for geological applications. Types of water bearing formations, porosity, permeability, storage
coefficient, specific storage, specific retention, specific yield, Different types of aquifers, vertical
distribution of ground water, General flow equation; steady and unsteady flow of ground water in
unconfined and confined aquifers.
- B1. Solid State Physics and Basic Electronics
Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, Space groups; Methods of
determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, Scanning and transmission electron
microscopes; Band theory of solids, conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties
of solids, Specific heat: Einstein’s and Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferro; Elements of
superconductivity; Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications; Elementary ideas about
high temperature superconductivity.
Semiconductor devices and circuits: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors; Devices and structures
(p-n junctions, diodes, transistors, FET, JFET and MOSFET, homo and hetero junction transistors,
thermistors), Device characteristics, Frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic
devices (solar cells, photo detectors, LEDs) Operational amplifiers and their applications.
- B2. Laser systems
Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation. Coherence, Light amplification and relation
between Einstein A and B coefficients. Rate equations for three and four level systems. Lasers: Ruby,
Nd-YAG, CO2, Dye, Excimer, Semiconductor. Laser cavity modes, Line shape function and full width
at half maximum (FWHM) for natural broadening, collision broadening, Doppler broadening;
Saturation behavior of broadened transitions, Longitudinal and transverse modes. Mode selection,
ABCD matrices and cavity stability criteria for confocal resonators. Quality factor, Expression for
intensity for modes oscillating at random and mode-locked in phase. Methods of Q-switching and
mode locking. Optical fiber waveguides, Fiber characteristics.
- B3. Digital electronics, Radar systems, Satellite communications
Digital techniques and applications: Boolean identities, de Morgan’s theorems, Logic gates and truth
tables; Simple logic circuits: registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A
converters. Microprocessor: basics and architecture; Microcontroller basics. Combination and
sequential logic circuits, Functional diagram, Timing diagram of read and write cycle, Data transfer
techniques: serial and parallel. Fundamentals of digital computers. Radar systems, Signal and data
processing, Surveillance radar, Tracking radar, Radar antenna parameters. Fundamentals of
satellite systems, Communication and Orbiting satellites, Satellite frequency bands, Satellite orbit
and inclinations. Earth station technology.
- B4. Quantum Mechanics
Wave-particle duality; Wave functions in coordinate and momentum representations; Commutators
and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; Schrodinger’s wave equation (time-dependent and timeindependent); Eigenvalue problems: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, tunneling through a 1-D
barrier; Motion in a central potential; Orbital angular momentum; Addition of angular momentum;
Hydrogen atom; Matrix representation; Dirac’s bra and ket notations; Time-independent
perturbation theory and applications; Variational method; WKB approximation; Time dependent
perturbation theory and Fermi’s Golden Rule; Selection rules; Semi-classical theory of radiation;
Elementary theory of scattering, Phase shifts, Partial waves, Born approximation; Identical particles,
Pauli’s exclusion principle, Spin-statistics connection; Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein
Gordon and Dirac equations.
|UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Chemistry : Paper-I (Inorganic Chemistry)
- Inorganic solids:
Defects, non-stoichiometric compounds and solid solutions, atom and ion diffusion, solid
electrolytes. Synthesis of materials, monoxides of 3d-metals, higher oxides, complex oxides
(corundrum, ReO3, spinel, pervoskites), framework structures (phosphates, aluminophosphates,
silicates, zeolites), nitrides and fluorides, chalcogenides, intercalation chemistry, semiconductors,
- Chemistry of coordination compounds:
Isomerism, reactivity and stability: Determination of configuration of cis- and trans- isomers by
chemical methods. Labile and inert complexes, substitution reactions on square planar complexes,
trans effect. Stability constants of coordination compounds and their importance in inorganic
Structure and bonding: Elementary Crystal Field Theory: splitting of dn configurations in
octahedral, square planar and tetrahedral fields, crystal field stabilization energy, pairing energy.
Jahn-Teller distortion. Metal-ligand bonding, sigma and pi bonding in octahedral complexes and
their effects on the oxidation states of transition metals. Orbital and spin magnetic moments, spin
only moments and their correlation with effective magnetic moments, d-d transitions; LS coupling,
spectroscopic ground states, selection rules for electronic spectral transitions; spectrochemical
series of ligands, charge transfer spectra.
- Acid base titrations:
Titration curves for strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base and weak base-strong acid
titrations, polyprotic acids, poly-equivalent bases, determining the equivalence point: theory of acidbase indicators, pH change range of indicator, selection of proper indicator. Principles used in
estimation of mixtures of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 (by acidimetry).
- Gravimetric Analysis:
General principles: Solubility, solubility product and common ion effect, effect of temperature on the
solubility; Salt hydrolysis, hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis.
Stoichiometry, calculation of results from gravimetric data. Properties of precipitates. Nucleation and
crystal growth, factors influencing completion of precipitation. Co-precipitation and post-
precipitation, purification and washing of precipitates. Precipitation from homogeneous solution. A
few common gravimetric estimations: chloride as silver chloride, sulphate as barium sulphate,
aluminium as oxinate and nickel as dimethyl glyoximate.
- Redox Titrations:
Standard redox potentials, Nernst equation. Influence of complex formation, precipitation and
change of pH on redox potentials, Normal Hydrogen Electrode (NHE). Feasibility of a redox titration,
redox potential at the equivalence point, redox indicators. Redox potentials and their applications.
Principles behind Iodometry, permanganometry, dichrometry, difference between iodometry and
iodimetry. Principles of estimation of iron, copper, manganese, chromium by redox titration.
- Complexometric titrations:
Complex formation reactions, stability of complexes, stepwise formation constants, chelating agents.
EDTA: acidic properties, complexes with metal ions, equilibrium calculations involving EDTA,
conditional formation constants, derivation of EDTA titration curves, effect of other complexing
agents, factors affecting the shape of titration curves: indicators for EDTA titrations, titration
methods employing EDTA: direct, back and displacement titrations, indirect determinations,
titration of mixtures, selectivity, masking and demasking agents. Typical applications of EDTA
titrations: hardness of water, magnesium and aluminium in antacids, magnesium, manganese and
zinc in a mixture, titrations involving unidentate ligands: titration of chloride with Hg2+ and cyanide
- Organometallic compounds:
18-electron rule and its applications to carbonyls and nature of bonding involved therein. Simple
examples of metal-metal bonded compounds and metal clusters. Wilkinson’s catalyst.
- Nuclear chemistry:
Radioactive decay- General characteristics, decay kinetics, parent-daughter decay growth
relationships, determination of half-lives. Nuclear stability. Decay theories. Unit of radioactivity.
Preparation of artificial radionuclides by bombardment, radiochemical separation techniques.
Experimental techniques in the assay of radioisotopes, Geiger-Muller counters. Solid state detectors.
- Chemistry of d- and f-block elements:
d-block elements: General comparison of 3d, 4d and 5d elements in terms of electronic
configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, atomization energy, oxidation states, redox
properties, coordination chemistry, spectral and magnetic properties.
f-block elements: Electronic configuration, ionization enthalpies, oxidation states, variation in
atomic and ionic (3+) radii, magnetic and spectral properties of lanthanides, separation of
lanthanides (by ion-exchange method).
|UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Chemistry : Paper-II (Physical Chemistry)
- Kinetic theory and the gaseous state:
Real gases, Deviation of gases from ideal behaviour; compressibility factor; van der Waals equation
of state and its characteristic features. Existence of critical state. Critical constants in terms of van
der Waals constants. Law of corresponding states and significance of second virial coefficient. Boyle
- Solids: Nature of solid state. Band theory of solids: Qualitative idea of band theory, conducting,
semiconducting and insulating properties.
Law of constancy of angles, concept of unit cell, different crystal systems, Bravais lattices, law of
rational indices, Miller indices, symmetry elements in crystals. X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law.
- Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:
Chemical potential in terms of Gibbs energy and other thermodynamic state functions and its
variation with temperature and pressure. Gibbs-Duhem equation; fugacity of gases and fugacity
coefficient. Thermodynamic conditions for equilibrium, degree of advancement. vant Hoff’s reaction
isotherm. Equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs energy change. Definitions of KP, KC and Kx;
vant Hoff’s reaction isobar and isochore. Activity and activity coefficients of electrolytes / ions in
solution. Debye-Hückel limiting law.
- Chemical kinetics and catalysis:
Second order reactions. Determination of order of reactions. Parallel and consecutive reactions.
Temperature dependence of reaction rate, energy of activation. Collision Theory and Transition State
Theory of reaction rates. Enthalpy of activation, entropy of activation, effect of dielectric constant
and ionic strength on reaction rate, kinetic isotope effect.
Physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption
isotherms, BET equation, surface area determination; colloids, electrical double layer and colloid
stability, electrokinetic phenomenon. Elementary ideas about soaps and detergents, micelles,
Types of electrochemical cells, cell reactions, emf and Nernst equation, ᐃG, ᐃH and ᐃS of cell
reactions. Cell diagrams and IUPAC conventions. Standard cells. Half-cells / electrodes, types of
reversible electrodes. Standard electrode potential and principles of its determination. Concentration
cells. Determination of ᐃGº, Kº, Ksp and pH.
Basic principles of pH metric and potentiometric titrations, determination of equivalence point and
- Quantum chemistry:
Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Uncertainty relation, Expectation value. Hermitian operators.
Schrödinger time-independent equation: nature of the equation, acceptability conditions imposed on
the wave functions and probability interpretation of wave function. Schrödinger equation for particle
in a one-dimensional box and its solution. Comparison with free particle eigenfunctions and
eigenvalues. Particle in a 3-D box and concept of degeneracy.
- Basic principles and applications of spectroscopy:
Electromagnetic radiation, interaction with atoms and molecules and quantization of different forms
of energies. Units of frequency, wavelength and wavenumber. Condition of resonance and energy of
absorption for various types of spectra; origin of atomic spectra, spectrum of hydrogen atom.
Rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Rigid rotor model, selection rules, spectrum,
characteristic features of spectral lines. Determination of bond length, effect of isotopic substitution.
Vibrational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Simple Harmonic Oscillator model, selection
rules and vibration spectra. Molecular vibrations, factors influencing vibrational frequencies.
Overtones, anharmonicity, normal mode analysis of polyatomic molecules.
Raman Effect: Characteristic features and conditions of Raman activity with suitable illustrations.
Rotational and vibrational Raman spectra.
Franck-Condon principle and vibrational structure of electronic spectra. Bond dissociation and
principle of determination of dissociation energy. Decay of excited states by radiative and nonradiative paths. Fluorescence and phosphorescence, Jablonski diagram. Laws of photochemistry:
Grotthus-Draper law, Stark-Einstein law of photochemical equivalence; quantum yield and its
measurement for a photochemical process, actinometry. Photostationary state. Photosensitized
reactions. Kinetics of HI decomposition, H2-Br2 reaction, dimerisation of anthracene.
|UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus for Chemistry : Paper-III (Analytical and Organic)
PART-A (Analytical Chemistry)
- A1. Errors in quantitative analysis:
Accuracy and precision, sensitivity, specific standard deviation in analysis, classification of errors
and their minimization, significant figures, criteria for rejection of data, Q-test, t-test, and F-test,
control chart, sampling methods, sampling errors, standard reference materials, statistical data
- A2. Separation Methods:
Chromatographic analysis: Basic principles of chromatography (partition, adsorption and ion
exchange), column chromatography, plate concept, plate height (HETP), normal phase and reversed
phase concept, thin layer chromatography, frontal analysis, principles of High Performance Liquid
Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC), and Ion-exchange chromatography.
Solvent extraction: Classification, principle and efficiency of the technique, mechanism of
extraction, extraction by solvation and chelation, qualitative and quantitative aspects of solvent
extraction, extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions.
- A3. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:
Lambert-Beer’s Law and its limitations.
UV-Visible Spectroscopy: Basic principles of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Instrumentation consisting
of source, monochromator, grating and detector, spectrophotometric determinations (estimation of
metal ions from aqueous solutions, determination of composition of metal complexes using Job’s
method of continuous variation and mole ratio method).
Infra-red Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator and
detector) for single and double beam instruments, sampling techniques.
Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice
of source, monochromator, detector, choice of flame and burner design), techniques of atomization
and sample introduction, method of background correction, sources of chemical interferences and
methods of removal, techniques for the quantitative estimation of trace level metal ions. Basic
principles and theory of AAS. Three different modes of AAS – Flame-AAS, VG-AAS, and GF-AAS.
Single beam and double beam AAS. Function of Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) and Electrode
Discharge Lamp (EDL). Different types of detectors used in AAS. Qualitative and quantitative
- A4. Thermal methods of analysis:
Theory of thermogravimetry (TG), basic principle of instrumentation, techniques for quantitative
analysis of Ca and Mg compounds.
- A5. X-ray methods of Analysis:
Introduction, theory of X-ray generation, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray
fluorescence methods, instrumentation and applications. Qualitative and quantitative
measurements. Powder diffraction method.
- A6. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy:
Theory and principles, plasma generation, utility of peristaltic pump, sampler–skimmer systems, ion
lens, quadrupole mass analyzer, dynode / solid state detector, different types of interferencesspectroscopic and non-spectroscopic interferences, isobaric and molecular interferences,
- A7. Analysis of geological materials:
Analysis of minerals and ores- estimation of (i) CaCO3, MgCO3 in dolomite (ii) Fe2O3, Al2O3, and TiO2
in bauxite (iii) MnO and MnO2 in pyrolusite. Analysis of metals and alloys: (i) Cu and Zn in brass (ii)
Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al and Ni in bronze (iii) Cr, Mn, Ni, and P in steel (iv) Pb, Sb, Sn in ‘type metal’.
Introduction to petroleum: constituents and petroleum fractionation. Analysis of petroleum
products: specific gravity, viscosity, Doctor test, aniline point, colour determination, cloud point,
pour point. Determination of water, neutralization value (acid and base numbers), ash content,
Determination of lead in petroleum.
Types of coal and coke, composition, preparation of sample for proximate and ultimate analysis,
calorific value by bomb calorimetry.
PART B (Organic chemistry)
- B1. Unstable, uncharged intermediates:
Structure and reactivity of carbenes and nitrenes and their rearrangements (Reimer-Tiemann,
Hoffman, Curtius, Lossen, and Schimdt,).
- B2. Addition reactions:
Addition to C-C multiple bonds: Mechanism of addition involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and
free radicals (polymerization reactions of alkenes and substituted alkenes), Ziegler-Natta catalyst for
polymerization, polyurethane, and conducting polymers; addition to conjugated systems (Diels-Alder
reaction), orientation and reactivity (on simple cis- and trans- alkenes).
Addition to carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds: Addition to C=O double bond, structure and
reactivity, hydration, addition of ROH, RSH, CN-, bisulphite, amine derivatives, hydride ions.
- B3: Reactions at the carbonyl group:
Cannizzaro, Aldol, Perkin, Claisen ester, benzoin, benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement, Mannich,
Dieckmann, Michael, Strobe, Darzen, Wittig, Doebner, Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reactions.
- B4. Oxidation and Reduction:
Reduction of C=C, Meerwein-Pondorf reaction, Wolff-Kishner and Birch reduction.
Oxidation of C=C, hydration, hydroxylation, hydroboration, ozonolysis, epoxidation, Sharpless
- B5. Electrocyclic Reactions:
Molecular orbital symmetry, frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3,5-hexatriene, allyl
system, FMO approach, pericyclic reactions, Woodward-Hoffman correlation diagram method and
perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) approach for the explanation of pericyclic reactions under
thermal and photochemical conditions. Simple cases of Norrish type-I and type-II reactions.
Conrotatory and disrotatory motions of (4n) and (4n+2) polyenes with emphasis on [2+2] and [4+2]
cycloadditions, sigmatropic rearrangements- shift of H and carbon moieties, Claisen, Cope,
- B6. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:
Infrared spectroscopy: Characteristic frequencies of organic molecules and interpretation of
spectra. Modes of molecular vibrations, characteristic stretching frequencies of O-H, N-H, C-H, C-D,
C=C, C=N, C=O functions; factors affecting stretching frequencies.
Ultraviolet spectroscopy: Chromophores, auxochromes. Electronic transitions (σ−σ*, n-σ*, π-π*
and n-π*), relative positions of λmax considering conjugative effect, steric effect, solvent effect, red
shift (bathochromic shift), blue shift (hypsochromic shift), hyperchromic effect, hypochromic effect
(typical examples). Woodward rules. Applications of UV spectroscopy to conjugated dienes, trienes,
unsaturated carbonyl compounds and aromatic compounds.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry: (Proton and Carbon-13 NMR) Nuclear spin, NMR
active nuclei, principle of proton magnetic resonance, equivalent and non-equivalent protons.
Measurement of spectra, the chemical shift, shielding / deshielding of protons, upfield and downfield
shifts, intensity of NMR signals and integration factors affecting the chemical shifts: spin-spin
coupling to 13C I
H first order coupling: some simple I
H splitting patterns: the magnitude of I
H coupling constants, diamagnetic anisotropy.
Mass spectrometry: Basic Principles, the mass spectrometer, isotope abundances; the molecular
ion, metastable ions. McLafferty rearrangement.