CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
- Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and
- Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and
empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on
UNIT II: Structure of Atom
- Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and
light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum
numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli
exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and
completely filled orbitals.
UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
- Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elementsatomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.
UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
- Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character
of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept
of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular
orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.
UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
- Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points,
role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s
law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro
number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation
from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
- Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no
UNIT VI : Thermodynamics
- First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat,
measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and
- Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change
for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
- Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
UNIT VII: Equilibrium
- Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical
equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic
equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization,
ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of PH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea),
buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative
UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions
- Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing
redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.
UNIT IX: Hydrogen
- Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and
interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxidepreparation, reactions, uses and structure;
UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
- Group I and group 2 elements:
- General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first
element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as
ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water,
hydrogen and halogens; uses.
- Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
- Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological
importance of sodium and potassium.
- Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements
- General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
- Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of
the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium:
uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
- General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element.
Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds:
- Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and
zeolites, their uses.
UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
- General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification
and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
- Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and
- Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions;
electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons
- Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical
reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
- Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical
properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water,
hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism
of electrophilic addition.
- Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of
preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen,
halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity;
chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation,
halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in
mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry
- Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs,
major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone
layer, greenhouse effect and global warmingpollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as
an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Solid State
- Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and
metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional
and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing
efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electr ical
and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
UNIT II: Solutions
- Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of
gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure,
Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure,
determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass.
Van Hoff factor.
UNIT III: Electrochemistry
- Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity
variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of
electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator,
EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of
a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics
- Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction;
concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and
specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order
reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).
Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
UNIT V: Surface Chemistry
- Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,
catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal
state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic
multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian
movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
- Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method
and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
UNIT VII: p- Block Elements
- Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states,
trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric
acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of
phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids
(elementary idea only).
- Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses;
classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation,
preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of
manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
- Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and
uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures
- Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical
and chemical properties, uses.
UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements
- General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends
in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation
states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy
formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
- Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid
contraction and its consequences.
- Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds
- Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic
properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism
(structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination
compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).
UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
- Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C -X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism
of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
- Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for
monosubstituted compounds only).
- Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,
iodoform, freons, DDT.
UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
- Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary
alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of
dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
- Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature
of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
- Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.
UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
- Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha
hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
- Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
- Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
- Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
- Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
UNIT XIV: Biomolecules
- Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose),
D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch,
cellulose, glycogen): importance.
- Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary
structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea
only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
- Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
- Vitamins- Classification and function.
- Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
UNIT XV: Polymers
- Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite;
rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
- Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials,
antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
- Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of
- Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.