SECTION – A PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
- UNIT I: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY
Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic
theory: Concept of atom, molecule,
element and compound: Physical
quantities and their measurements in
Chemistry, precision and accuracy,
significant figures. S.I.Units, dimensional
analysis: Laws of chemical combination;
Atomic and molecular masses, mole
concept, molar mass, percentage
composition, empirical and molecular
formulae: Chemical equations and
- UNIT 2: STATES OF MATTER
Classification of matter into solid, liquid
and gaseous states.
Measurable properties of gases: Gas laws –
Boyle’s law, Charle’s law. Graham’s law of
diffusion. Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of
partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale
of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic
theory of gases (only postulates); Concept
of average, root mean square and most
probable velocities; Real gases, deviation
from Ideal behaviour, compressibility
factor and van der Waals equation.
Properties of liquids – vapour pressure,
viscosity and surface tension and effect of
temperature on them (qualitative treatment
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic,
covalent and metallic solids, amorphous
and crystalline solids (elementary idea);
Bragg’s Law and its applications: Unit cell
and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and
hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving
unit cell parameters, an imperfection in
solids; Electrical and magnetic properties.
- UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models
and their limitations; Nature of
electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric
effect; Spectrum of the hydrogen atom.
Bohr model of a hydrogen atom – its
postulates, derivation of the relations for
the energy of the electron and radii of the
different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s
model; Dual nature of matter, de Broglie’s
relationship. Heisenberg uncertainty
principle. Elementary ideas of quantum
mechanics, quantum mechanics, the
quantum mechanical model of the atom, its
important features. Concept of atomic
orbitals as one-electron wave functions:
Variation of and 2 with r for 1s and 2s
quantum numbers (principal, angular
momentum and magnetic quantum
numbers) and their significance; shapes of
s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin
quantum number: Rules for filling
electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle.
Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule,
electronic configuration of elements, extra
stability of half-filled and completely filled
- UNIT 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond
formation, the concept of ionic and
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds,
factors affecting the formation of ionic
bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of
electronegativity. Fajan’s rule, dipole
moment: Valence Shell Electron Pair
Repulsion (VSEPR ) theory and shapes of
Quantum mechanical approach to
covalent bonding: Valence bond theory –
its important features, the concept of
hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals;
Molecular Orbital Theory – Its important
features. LCAOs, types of molecular
orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and
pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic
configurations of homonuclear diatomic
molecules, the concept of bond order, bond
length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding.
Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
- UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System
and surroundings, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions, types of
The first law of thermodynamics –
Concept of work, heat internal energy and
enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat
capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat
summation; Enthalpies of bond
dissociation, combustion, formation,
atomization, sublimation, phase transition,
hydration, ionization and solution.
The second law of thermodynamics –
Spontaneity of processes; S of the
universe and G of the system as criteria
for spontaneity. G (Standard Gibbs
energy change) and equilibrium constant.
- UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS
Different methods for expressing the
concentration of solution – molality,
molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by
volume and mass both), the vapour
pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law –
Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour
pressure – composition, plots for ideal and
non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties
of dilute solutions – a relative lowering of
vapour pressure, depression of freezing
point, the elevation of boiling point and
osmotic pressure; Determination of
molecular mass using colligative
properties; Abnormal value of molar mass,
van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
- UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM
Meaning of equilibrium, the concept of
Equilibria involving physical processes:
Solid-liquid, liquid – gas and solid-gas
equilibria, Henry’s law. General
characteristics of equilibrium involving
Equilibrium involving chemical
processes: Law of chemical equilibrium,
equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their
significance, the significance of G and G
in chemical equilibrium, factors affecting
equilibrium concentration, pressure,
temperature, the effect of catalyst; Le
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong
electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes,
various concepts of acids and bases
(Arrhenius. Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis)
and their ionization, acid-base equilibria
(including multistage ionization) and
ionization constants, ionization of water.
pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of
salts and pH of their solutions, the
solubility of sparingly soluble salts and
solubility products, buffer solutions.
- UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Electronic concepts of oxidation and
reduction, redox reactions, oxidation
number, rules for assigning oxidation
number, balancing of redox reactions.
Electrolytic and metallic conduction,
conductance in electrolytic solutions,
molar conductivities and their variation
with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and
Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and
Galvanic cells, different types of
electrodes, electrode potentials including
standard electrode potential, half – cell and
cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and
its measurement: Nernst equation and its
applications; Relationship between cell
potential and Gibbs’ energy change: Dry
cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.
- UNIT 9: CHEMICAL KINETICS
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors
affecting the rate of reactions:
concentration, temperature, pressure and
catalyst; elementary and complex
reactions, order and molecularity of
reactions, rate law, rate constant and its
units, differential and integral forms of
zero and first-order reactions, their
characteristics and half-lives, the effect of
temperature on the rate of reactions,
Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its
calculation, collision theory of bimolecular
gaseous reactions (no derivation).
- UNIT 10: SURFACE CHEMISTRY
Adsorption- Physisorption and
chemisorption and their characteristics,
factors affecting adsorption of gases on
solids – Freundlich and Langmuir
adsorption isotherms, adsorption from
Catalysis – Homogeneous and
heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of
solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its
Colloidal state- distinction among true
solutions, colloids and suspensions,
classification of colloids – lyophilic.
macromolecular and associated colloids
(micelles), preparation and properties of
colloids – Tyndall effect. Brownian
movement, electrophoresis, dialysis,
coagulation and flocculation: Emulsions
and their characteristics.
SECTION-B INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
- UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES
Modem periodic law and present form of
the periodic table, s, p. d and f block
elements, periodic trends in properties of
elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization
enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence,
oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
- UNIT 12: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature,
minerals, ores; Steps involved in the
extraction of metals – concentration,
reduction (chemical and electrolytic
methods) and refining with special
reference to the extraction of Al. Cu, Zn
and Fe; Thermodynamic and
electrochemical principles involved in the
extraction of metals.
- UNIT 13: HYDROGEN
Position of hydrogen in periodic table,
isotopes, preparation, properties and uses
of hydrogen; Physical and chemical
properties of water and heavy water;
Structure, preparation, reactions and uses
of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of
hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial;
Hydrogen as a fuel.
- UNIT 14: S -BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)
Group -1 and 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic
configuration and general trends in
physical and chemical properties of
elements, anomalous properties of the first
element of each group, diagonal
Preparation and properties of some
important compounds – sodium carbonate
and sodium hydroxide and sodium
hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of
lime, limestone. Plaster of Paris and
cement: Biological significance of Na, K.
Mg and Ca.
- UNIT 15: P- BLOCK ELEMENTS
Group -13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic
configuration and general trends in
physical and chemical properties of
elements across the periods and down the
groups; unique behaviour of the first
element in each group.
Groupwise study of the p – block
elements Group -13
Preparation, properties and uses of boron
and aluminium; Structure, properties and
uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron
trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
The tendency for catenation; Structure,
properties and uses of Allotropes and
oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride,
silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Properties and uses of nitrogen and
phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of
phosphorus; Preparation, properties,
structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid,
phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3.
PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of
nitrogen and phosphorus.
Preparation, properties, structures and uses
of ozone: Allotropic forms of sulphur;
Preparation, properties, structures and uses
of sulphuric acid (including its industrial
preparation); Structures of oxoacids of
Preparation, properties and uses of
hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic
nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of
Interhalogen compounds and oxides and
oxoacids of halogens.
Occurrence and uses of noble gases;
Structures of fluorides and oxides of
- UNIT 16: d – and f- BLOCK ELEMENTS
General introduction, electronic
configuration, occurrence and
characteristics, general trends in properties
of the first-row transition elements –
physical properties, ionization enthalpy,
oxidation states, atomic radii, colour,
catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties,
complex formation, interstitial
compounds, alloy formation; Preparation,
properties and uses of K2Cr2O7, and
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration,
oxidation states and lanthanoid
Actinoids – Electronic configuration and
- UNIT 17: CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS
Introduction to co-ordination compounds.
Werner’s theory; ligands, co-ordination
number, denticity. chelation; IUPAC
nomenclature of mononuclear co–
ordination compounds, isomerism;
Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic
ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and
magnetic properties; Importance of co–
ordination compounds (in qualitative
analysis, extraction of metals and in
- UNIT 18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Environmental pollution – Atmospheric,
water and soil.
Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric
Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous
pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and
sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources,
harmful effects and prevention;
Greenhouse effect and Global warming:
Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust,
smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful
effects and prevention.
Stratospheric pollution- Formation and
breakdown of ozone, depletion of the
ozone layer – its mechanism and effects.
Water Pollution – Major pollutants such
as. pathogens, organic wastes and
chemical pollutants; their harmful effects
Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as;
Pesticides (insecticides. herbicides and
fungicides), their harmful effects and
prevention. Strategies to control
SECTION-C ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
- UNIT 19: PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Purification – Crystallization,
sublimation, distillation, differential
extraction and chromatography – principles
and their applications.
Qualitative analysis – Detection of
nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and
Quantitative analysis (basic principles
only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and
molecular formulae: Numerical problems
in organic quantitative analysis,
- UNIT 20:SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Tetravalency of carbon: Shapes of simple
molecules – hybridization (s and p):
Classification of organic compounds based
on functional groups: and those containing
halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur;
Homologous series: Isomerism – structural
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and
heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and
carbanions; stability of carbocations and
free radicals, electrophiles and
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond
– Inductive effect, electromeric effect,
resonance and hyperconjugation.
Common types of organic reactionsSubstitution, addition, elimination and
- UNITS 21: HYDROCARBONS
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC
nomenclature, general methods of
preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and
Newman projections (of ethane):
Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism:
Mechanism of electrophilic addition:
addition of hydrogen, halogens, water,
hydrogen halides (Markownikoffs and
peroxide effect): Ozonolysis and
Alkynes – Acidic character: Addition of
hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen
Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature,
benzene – structure and aromaticity:
Mechanism of electrophilic substitution:
Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation,
directive influence of the functional group
in mono-substituted benzene.
- UNIT 22: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS
General methods of preparation, properties
and reactions; Nature of C-X bond;
Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of
chloroform, iodoform freons and DDT.
- UNIT 23: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN
General methods of preparation,
properties, reactions and uses.
ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS
Alcohols: Identification of primary,
secondary and tertiary alcohols:
mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic
substitution reactions: halogenation.
nitration and sulphonation. Reimer –
Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of
carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to
>C=O group, relative reactivities of
aldehydes and ketones; Important
reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition
reactions (addition of HCN. NH3, and its
derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation:
reduction (Wolf Kishner and
Clemmensen); the acidity of -hydrogen.
aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction.
Haloform reaction, Chemical tests to
distinguish between aldehydes and
Acidic strength and factors affecting it,
- UNIT 24: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN
General methods of preparation.
Properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification
structure, basic character and identification
of primary, secondary and tertiary amines
and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic
- UNIT 25: POLYMERS
General introduction and classification of
polymers, general methods of
polymerization, – Addition and
Natural and synthetic, rubber and
vulcanization, some important polymers
with emphasis on their monomers and uses
– polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
- UNIT 26: BIOMOLECULES
General introduction and importance of
CARBOHYDRATES – Classification;
aldoses and ketoses: monosaccharides
(glucose and fructose) and constituent
monosaccharides of oligosaccharides
(sucrose, lactose and maltose).
PROTEINS – Elementary Idea of -amino
acids, peptide bond, polypeptides.
Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and
quaternary structure (qualitative idea
only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
VITAMINS – Classification and
NUCLEIC ACIDS – Chemical
constitution of DNA and RNA.
Biological functions of nucleic acids.
- UNIT 27: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Chemicals in Medicines – Analgesics,
tranquillizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, anti-fertility drugs,
antibiotics, antacids. Anti-histamines –
their meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food – Preservatives,
artificial sweetening agents – common
Cleansing Agents – Soaps and detergents,
- UNIT 28: PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY
Detection of extra elements (Nitrogen,
Sulphur, halogens) in organic compounds;
Detection of the following functional
groups; hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic),
carbonyl (aldehyde and ketones) carboxyl
and amino groups in organic compounds.
The chemistry involved in the preparation
of the following:
Inorganic compounds; Mohr’s salt, potash
Organic compounds: Acetanilide, p-nitro
acetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
The chemistry involved in the titrimetric
exercises – Acids, bases and the use of
indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s
salt vs KMnO4
Chemical principles involved in the
qualitative salt analysts:
Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+,Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+Anions- CO32−, S
2-,SO42−,NO3-, NO2-, Cl-,Br-, I-
( Insoluble salts excluded).
Chemical principles involved in the
1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid
and strong base.
3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic
4. Kinetic study of the reaction of iodide
ion with hydrogen peroxide at room
- UNIT 1: SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:
Sets and their representation: Union,
intersection and complement of sets and
their algebraic properties; Power set;
Relation, Type of relations, equivalence
relations, functions; one-one, into and onto
functions, the composition of functions.
- UNIT 2: COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS:
Complex numbers as ordered pairs of
reals, Representation of complex numbers
in the form a + ib and their representation
in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of
complex number, modulus and argument
(or amplitude) of a complex number,
square root of a complex number, triangle
inequality, Quadratic equations in real and
complex number system and their
solutions Relations between roots and coefficient, nature of roots, the formation of
quadratic equations with given roots.
- UNIT 3: MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS:
Matrices, algebra of matrices, type of
matrices, determinants and matrices of
order two and three, properties of
determinants, evaluation of determinants,
area of triangles using determinants,
Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a
square matrix using determinants and
elementary transformations, Test of
consistency and solution of simultaneous
linear equations in two or three variables
using determinants and matrices.
- UNIT 4: PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS:
The fundamental principle of counting,
permutation as an arrangement and
combination as section, Meaning of P (n,r)
and C (n,r), simple applications.
- UNIT 5: MATHEMATICAL INDUCTIONS:
Principle of Mathematical Induction and
its simple applications.
- UNIT 6: BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS:
Binomial theorem for a positive integral
index, general term and middle term,
properties of Binomial coefficients and
- UNIT 7: SEQUENCE AND SERIES:
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions,
insertion of arithmetic, geometric means
between two given numbers, Relation
between A.M and G.M sum up to n terms
of special series; Sn, Sn2, Sn3.
- UNIT 8: LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY:
Real – valued functions, algebra of
functions, polynomials, rational,
trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential
functions, inverse function. Graphs of
simple functions. Limits, continuity and
differentiability. Differentiation of the
sum, difference, product and quotient of
two functions. Differentiation of
trigonometric, inverse trigonometric,
logarithmic, exponential, composite and
implicit functions; derivatives of order up
to two, Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean value
Theorems, Applications of derivatives:
Rate of change of quantities, monotonic Increasing and decreasing functions,
Maxima and minima of functions of one
variable, tangents and normal.
- UNIT 9: INTEGRAL CALCULAS:
Integral as an anti-derivative, Fundamental
Integrals involving algebraic,
trigonometric, exponential and logarithms
functions. Integrations by substitution, by
parts and by partial functions. Integration
using trigonometric identities.
Integral as limit of a sum. The fundamental
theorem of calculus, properties of definite
integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals,
determining areas of the regions bounded
by simple curves in standard form.
- UNIT 10: DIFFRENTIAL EQUATIONS
Ordinary differential equations, their order
and degree, the formation of differential
equations, solution of differential equation
by the method of separation of variables,
solution of a homogeneous and linear
differential equation of the type
- UNIT 11: CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY
Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates in a plane, distance formula,
sections formula, locus and its equation,
translation of axes, the slope of a line,
parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts
of a line on the co-ordinate axis.
Straight line Various forms of equations of a line,
intersection of lines, angles between two
lines, conditions for concurrence of three
lines, the distance of a point form a line,
equations of internal and external by
sectors of angles between two lines coordinate of the centroid, orthocentre and
circumcentre of a triangle, equation of the
family of lines passing through the point of
intersection of two lines.
Circle, conic sections
A standard form of equations of a circle,
the general form of the equation of a circle,
its radius and central, equation of a circle
when the endpoints of a diameter are
given, points of intersection of a line and a
circle with the centre at the origin and
condition for a line to be tangent to a circle,
equation of the tangent, sections of conics,
equations of conic sections (parabola,
ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms,
condition for Y = mx +c to be a tangent and
point (s) of tangency.
- UNIT 12: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Coordinates of a point in space, the
distance between two points, section
formula, directions ratios and direction
cosines, the angle between two intersecting
lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance
between them and its equation. Equations
of a line and a plane in different forms, the
intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar
- UNIT 13: VECTOR ALGEBRA
Vectors and scalars, the addition of
vectors, components of a vector in two
dimensions and three-dimensional space,
scalar and vector products, scalar and
vector triple product.
- UNIT 14: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
Measures of discretion; calculation of
mean, median, mode of grouped and
ungrouped data calculation of standard
deviation, variance and mean deviation for
grouped and ungrouped data.
Probability: Probability of an event,
addition and multiplication theorems of
probability, Baye’s theorem, probability
distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli
trials and binomial distribution.
- UNIT 15: TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometrical identities and equations,
trigonometrical functions, inverse
trigonometrical functions and their
properties, heights and distance.
- UNIT 16: MATHEMATICAL REASONING
Statement logical operations and, or,
implies, implied by, if and only if,
understanding of tautology, contradiction,
converse and contrapositive.