- Silviculture – General :
General Silvicultural Principles : ecological and physiological factors influencing
vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation,
grafting techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniques-nursery beds,
polybags and maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings;
special approaches; establishment and tending.
- Silviculture – systems :
Clear felling, uniform shelter wood selection, coppice and conversion systems.
Management of silviculture systems of temperate, subtropical, humid tropical, dry
tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture,
choice of species, establishment and management of standards, enrichment methods,
technical constraints, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding thinning.
- Silviculture – Mangrove and Cold desert :
Mangrove : habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment and
rehabilitation of degraded mangrove formations; silvicultural systems for mangrove;
protection of habitats against natural disasters.
Cold desert – Characteristics, identification and management of species.
- Silviculture of trees :
Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices.
Silviculture of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia
catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera,
Anthocephalus Cadamba, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea
monosperma, Cassia siamea,Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrus deodara, Chukrasia
tabularis, Dalbergia sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp., Emblica officindils, Eucalyptus spp,
Gmelina Arborea, Hardwickia binata, Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus roxburghi,
Populus spp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Prosopis
juliflora, Santalum album, Semecarpus anacardium,. Shorea robusta,
- Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint Forest Management and Tribology :
Agroforestry – scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals
and in integrated land use, planning especially related to (i) soil and water
conservation; (ii) water recharge; (iii) nutrient availability to crops; (iv) nature and
ecosystem preservation including ecological balances through pest-predator
relationships and (v) providing opportunities for enhancing bio-diversity, medicinal
and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agro-ecological zones;
selection of species and role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs, techniques, food,
fodder and fuel security. Research and Extension needs.
Social/Urban Forestry : objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.
JFM – principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs.
Tribology – tribal scene in India; tribes, concept of races, principles of social
grouping, stages of tribal economy, education, cultural tradition, customs, ethos and
participation in forestry programmes.
- Forest Soils, Soil Conservation and Watershed management :
Forests Soils: classification, factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and
Soil conservation – definition, causes for erosion; types – wind and water erosion;
conservation and management of eroded soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand
dunes; reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands.
Role of forests in conserving soils. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter,
provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composting; Role of
microorganisms in ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM.
Watershed Management – concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees
in overall resource management, forest hydrology, watershed development in respect
of torrent control, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls,
rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain areas; watershed management
and environmental functions of forests; water-harvesting and conservation; ground
water recharge and watershed management; role of integrating forest trees,
horticultural crops, field crops, grass and fodders.
- Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity :
Environment; components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of
deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and
developmental projects, population growth on environment.
Pollution – types, global warming, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid
rain, impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable
development. Role of trees and forests in environmental conservation; control and
prevention of air, water and noise pollution. Environmental policy and legislation in
India. Environmental Impact Assessment. Economics assessment of watershed
development vis-a-vis ecological and environmental protection.
- Tree Improvement and Seed Technology :
General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use,
provenance, seed source, exotics; quantitative aspects of forest tree improvement,
seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural
forest and stand improvement, genetic testing programming, selection and breeding
for resistance to diseases, insects, and adverse environment; the genetic base, forest
genetic resources and gene conservation in situ and ex-situ. Cost benefit ratio,