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UPSC Indian Forest Service Forestry Optional Syllabus

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UPSC Forestry Optional Syllabus For IFS Mains 2023 upsc Forestry optional syllabus in hindi, upsc Forestry optional, upsc Forestry optional highest marks Forestry optional syllabus, upsc Forestry optional Syllabus, upsc Forestry optional question paper, Forestry optional upsc notes UPSC IFS Forestry Optional Syllabus for Paper-I, UPSC IFS Forestry Optional Syllabus for Paper-II

UPSC IFS Forestry Optional Syllabus for Paper-I


  •  Silviculture – General :
    General Silvicultural Principles : ecological and physiological factors influencing
    vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation,
    grafting techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniques-nursery beds,
    polybags and maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings;
    special approaches; establishment and tending.
  • Silviculture – systems :
    Clear felling, uniform shelter wood selection, coppice and conversion systems.
    Management of silviculture systems of temperate, subtropical, humid tropical, dry
    tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture,
    choice of species, establishment and management of standards, enrichment methods,
    technical constraints, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding thinning.
  • Silviculture – Mangrove and Cold desert :
    Mangrove : habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment and
    rehabilitation of degraded mangrove formations; silvicultural systems for mangrove;
    protection of habitats against natural disasters.
    Cold desert – Characteristics, identification and management of species.
  • Silviculture of trees :
    Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices.
    Silviculture of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia
    catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera,
    Anthocephalus Cadamba, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea
    monosperma, Cassia siamea,Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrus deodara, Chukrasia
    tabularis, Dalbergia sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp., Emblica officindils, Eucalyptus spp,
    Gmelina Arborea, Hardwickia binata, Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus roxburghi,
    Populus spp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Prosopis
    juliflora, Santalum album, Semecarpus anacardium,. Shorea robusta,

Section B

  • Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint Forest Management and Tribology :
    Agroforestry – scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals
    and in integrated land use, planning especially related to (i) soil and water
    conservation; (ii) water recharge; (iii) nutrient availability to crops; (iv) nature and
    ecosystem preservation including ecological balances through pest-predator
    relationships and (v) providing opportunities for enhancing bio-diversity, medicinal
    and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agro-ecological zones;
    selection of species and role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs, techniques, food,
    fodder and fuel security. Research and Extension needs.
    Social/Urban Forestry : objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.
    JFM – principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs.
    Tribology – tribal scene in India; tribes, concept of races, principles of social
    grouping, stages of tribal economy, education, cultural tradition, customs, ethos and
    participation in forestry programmes.
  • Forest Soils, Soil Conservation and Watershed management :
    Forests Soils: classification, factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and
    biological properties.
    Soil conservation – definition, causes for erosion; types – wind and water erosion;
    conservation and management of eroded soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand
    dunes; reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands.
    Role of forests in conserving soils. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter,
    provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composting; Role of
    microorganisms in ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM.
    Watershed Management – concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees
    in overall resource management, forest hydrology, watershed development in respect
    of torrent control, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls,
    rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain areas; watershed management
    and environmental functions of forests; water-harvesting and conservation; ground
    water recharge and watershed management; role of integrating forest trees,
    horticultural crops, field crops, grass and fodders.
  • Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity :
    Environment; components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of
    deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and
    developmental projects, population growth on environment.
    Pollution – types, global warming, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid
    rain, impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable
    development. Role of trees and forests in environmental conservation; control and
    prevention of air, water and noise pollution. Environmental policy and legislation in
    India. Environmental Impact Assessment. Economics assessment of watershed
    development vis-a-vis ecological and environmental protection.
  • Tree Improvement and Seed Technology :
    General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use,
    provenance, seed source, exotics; quantitative aspects of forest tree improvement,
    seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural
    forest and stand improvement, genetic testing programming, selection and breeding
    for resistance to diseases, insects, and adverse environment; the genetic base, forest
    genetic resources and gene conservation in situ and ex-situ. Cost benefit ratio,
    economic evaluation.
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UPSC IFS Forestry Optional Syllabus for Paper-II

Section A

  • Forest Management and Management Systems :
    Objective and principles; techniques; stand structure and dynamics, sustained yield
    relation; rotation, normal forest, growing stock; regulation of yield; management of
    forest plantations, commercial forests, forest cover monitoring. Approaches viz., (i)
    site-specific planning, (ii) strategic planning, (iii) Approval, sanction and expenditure,
    (iv) Monitoring (v) Reporting and governance. Details of steps involved such as
    formation of Village Forest Committees, Joint Forest Participatory Management.
  • Forest Working Plan :
    Forest planning, evaluation and monitoring tools and approaches for integrated
    planning; multipurpose development of forest resources and forest industries
    development; working plans and working schemes, their role in nature conservation,
    bio-diversity and other dimensions; preparation and control. Divisional Working
    Plans, Annual Plan of Operations.
  • Forest Mensuration and Remote Sensing :
    Methods of measuring – diameter, girth, height and volume of trees; form-factor;
    volume estimation of stand, current annual increment; mean annual increment.
    Sampling methods and sample plots. Yield calculation; yield and stand tables, forest
    cover monitoring through remote
    sensing; Geographic Information Systems for management and modeling.
  • Surveying and Forest Engineering :
    Forest surveying – different methods of surveying, maps and map reading. Basic
    principles of forest engineering. Building materials and construction. Roads and
    Bridges; General principles, objects, types, simple design and construction of timber

Section B

  • Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany :
    Forest ecology – Biotic and aboitic components, forest eco-systems; forest community
    concepts; vegetation concepts, ecological succession and climax, primary productivity,
    nutrient cycling and water relations; physiology in stress environments (drought,
    water logging salinity and alkalinity). Forest types in India, identification of species,
    composition and associations; dendrology, taxonomic classification, principles and
    establishment of herbaria and arboreta. Conservation of forest ecosystems. Clonal
    parks, Role of Ethnobotany in Indian Systems of Medicine; Ayurveda and Unani –
    Introduction, nomenclature, habitat, distribution and botanical features of medicinal
    and aromatic plants. Factors affecting action and toxicity of drug plants and their
    chemical constituents.
  • Forest Resources and Utilization : Environmentally sound forest harvesting
    practices; logging and extraction techniques and principles, transportation system,
    storage and sale; Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) definition and scope; gums,
    resins, oleoresins, fibres, oil seeds nuts, rubber, canes, bamboos, medicinal plants,
    charcoal, lac and shellac, Katha and Bidi leaves, collection; processing and disposal.
    Need and importance of wood seasoning and preservation; general principles of
    seasoning, air and kiln seasoning, solar dehumidification, steam heated and electrical
    kilns. Composite wood; adhesives-manufacture, properties, uses, plywood
    manufacture-properties, uses, fibre boards-manufacture properties, uses; particle
    boards manufacture; properties uses. Present status of composite wood industry in
    India in future expansion plans. Pulp-paper and rayon; present position of supply of
    raw material to industry, wood substitution, utilization of plantation wood; problems
    and possibilities.
    Anatomical structure of wood, defects and abnormalities of wood, timber identification
    – general principles.
  • Forest Protection & Wildlife Biology :
    Injuries to forest – abiotic and biotic, destructive agencies, insect-pests and disease,
    effects of air pollution on forests and forest die back. Susceptibility of forests to
    damage, nature of damage, cause, prevention, protective measures and benefits due
    to chemical and biological control. General forest protection against fire, equipment
    and methods, controlled use of fire, economic and environmental costs; timber salvage
    operations after natural disasters. Role of afforestation and forest regeneration in
    absorption of CO2. Rotational and controlled grazing, different methods of control
    against grazing and browsing animals; effect of wild animals on forest regeneration,
    human impacts; encroachment, poaching, grazing, live fencing, theft, shifting
    cultivation and control.
  • Forest Economics and Legislation :
    Forest economics: fundamental principles, cost-benefit analyses; estimation of
    demand and supply; analysis of trends in the national and international market and
    changes in production and consumption patterns; assessment and projection of
    market structures; role of private sector and co-operatives; role of corporate financing.
    Socio-economic analyses of forest productivity and attitudes; valuation of forest goods
    and service.
    Legislation-History of forest development; Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and
    1990. National Forest Policy, 1988 of People’s involvement, Joint Forest Management,
    Involvement of women; Forestry Policies and issues related to land use, timber and
    non-timber products, sustainable forest management; industrialization policies;
    institutional and structural changes. Decentralization and Forestry Public
    Administration. Forest laws, necessity; general principles, Indian Forest Act 1927;
    Forest Conservation Act, 1980; Wildlife Protection Act 1972 and their amendments;
    Application of Indian Penal Code to Forestry. Scope and objectives of Forest nventory.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on UPSC Indian Forest Service Optional Syllabus

Question- What does it mean General Aptitude (CSAT) has been made qualifying”? Will only General Studies marks be counted for clearing Prelims examination?
Answer- Yes, provided you have scored at least 33% marks in CSAT paper.

Question- If I have given an attempt at Civil Services, is that counted in Indian Forest Service (IFS) Attempt too?
Answer- No. Your attempt for Civil service exam and Forest exam are counted separately. Even if you have exhausted all your CSE attempts, you can appear for IFS.

Question- Will my marks scored in Prelims affect my scores in Mains examination?
Answer- No. Prelims examination is meant to serve as a screening test only. Once you qualify Prelims, what you have scored before does not matter in Mains.

Birm Gehlot

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