UPSC CSE Botany Optional Syllabus 2021
By On June 3rd, 2021
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UPSC CSE Botany Optional Syllabus 2021  botany optional upsc notes, botany optional syllabus for upsc in hindi, botany optional upsc marks, botany syllabus for upsc ifs, botany optional upsc, Botany syllabus for upsc, anthropology syllabus for upsc, upsc botany optional question paper  UPSC CSE Botany Optional Syllabus for Paper-I, UPSC CSE Botany Optional Syllabus for Paper-II

UPSC CSE Botany Optional Syllabus for Paper-I
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology :
Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses,viroids, bacteria, fungi and
mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control
of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis.
Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes;
Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease
resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.
Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.
2. Cryptogams :
Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from
evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and
economic importance.
3. Phanerogams :
Gymnosperms : Concept of Progymnosperms. Classification and distribution of
gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales,
their structure and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and
Cordiaitailes; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques.Angiosperms : Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency.Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxomomy
and chemotaxomomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of
classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families— Mangnoliaceae,
Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae,
Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae,
Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae.
Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary
growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm—its
development and function. Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony, apomixes;
Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and
test-tube fertilization.
4. Plant Resource Development :
Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of
origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs,
narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes; latex, cellulose, starch and its
products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations;
Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
5. Morphogenesis :
Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast
culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its
applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.
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UPSC CSE Botany Optional Syllabus for Paper-II
1. Cell Biology :
Techniques of cell biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells—structural and ultrastructural
details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall) and membranes-cell
adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport; Structure and function of cell
organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes,lysosomes,
peroxisomes; Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex;
Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction Mitosis
and meiosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations in
chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome;
Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes—structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution :
Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative
genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple
alleles; Linkage and crossing over of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of
mapping, function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance; sex determination and
molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis);
Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene
expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism
and theories.
Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics :
Methods of plant breeding—introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree,
backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis
breeding. Use of apomixes in plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic
engineering—methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects;
Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and
techniques—probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH. Standard
deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and
chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson).
Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry :
Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies.
Photosynthesis—photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon fixation
pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of pholem transport, Respiration
(anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation)—electron transport chain and oxidative
phosphorylation; Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid
metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy
transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as
photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Plant movements; Photoperiodism
and flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances—their chemical nature, role
and applications in agri-horticulture; growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology
(heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination
of seed. Fruit ripening—its molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography :
Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant
succession. Concepts of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control
(including phytoreme-diation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.
Forest types of India—‘Ecological and ecomomic importance of forests, afforestation,
deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism IUCN categories, Red Data
Books; Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention of Biological
Diversity, Farmers’ Rights; and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable
Development; Biogeochemical cycles. Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species;
Environmetal Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) On UPSC CSE Optional Syllabus 

Question- What is the UPSC’s Annual Programme (Calendar) of Examinations/RTs (Recruitment Tests)?
Answer – The UPSC publishes an Annual Programme (Calendar) of all the Structured Examinations/RTs conducted by it at least 6 months in advance (i.e. in June) for the Examinations/RTs to be conducted during the next calendar year. The Programme is uploaded on the UPSC’s website as also published in the leading news papers of the country. The date of issue of Examination Notice for each Examination is also mentioned in this Annual Programme.

Question- What happens if a candidate submits multiple online applications?
Answer – While a candidate should avoid submitting more than one online application, in case of doing so, the data provided in the last application (highest RID Number), that is successfully submitted online, is accepted by the Commission. All previous applications are ignored as these are amalgamated with the last completed & finally submitted application. If an applicant (who has already submitted an application successfully) wants to
make amendments in the application, then he has to submit a fresh application on or before the last date of submission of application of the Examination. Therefore, it must be ensured that fee is submitted against the
last online application only, which should also be complete in all respects including its final submission. Fee paid against one RID shall not be adjusted against any other RID number

Question- What action is taken by the Commission in case of submission of false information by the candidates?
Answer – A candidate found to be furnishing false information to the Commission or suppressing information, adopting various unfair means in the Examination like impersonation, cheating, etc., is liable to be disqualified
and/or debarred from writing UPSC Examinations as decided by the Commission. A detailed stipulation in this regard is incorporated in the Rules of Examination/ Examination Notices.

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