- Introductory Pharmacognosy
Historical development, modern concept and scope of Pharmacognosy. The significance of
Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in India viz: Ayurveda, Unani,
Homeopathic and Siddha.
- Classification of crude drugs
Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical and
chemotaxonomic methods: organized and unorganized drugs: official and unofficial drugs.
Plants, animals and minerals: marine products: plant tissue culture.
- Factors influencing quality of crude drugs
Exogenous factors: temperature, rainfall, daylight, altitude and soil. Endogenous factors:
Mutation, polyploidy, & hybridization in medicinal plants. Production factors including
collection, drying, storage and transport methods.
Study of morphological and histological characters of crude drugs, Ergastic cell inclusions,
anatomical structures of both monocot and dicot stems, leaves and roots: barks, fruits and
- Techniques in microscopy
Details of mountants, clearing agents, chemomicroscopic (microchemical) reagents.
- Introduction to phytoconstituents
Definition, classification, chemical tests and pharmaceutical importance of: carbohydrates and
their derivatives, fats and proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins,
resins, lipids and volatile oils.
- Principles of plant classification
Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to:
Algae: Rhodophyceae (Agar, Alginic acid, Diatoms).
Fungi: Ergot, Yeast and penicillium.
Gymnosperm: Pinaceae (Turpentine, Colophony), Gnetaceae (Ephedra).
Angiosperm: Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae,
Scrophulariaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Acanthaceae and Apiaceae.
Pteridophytes: Male fern.
- Pharmaceutical aids
Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Starches, acacia gum,
tragacanth, sterculia, guar gum, pectin, arachis oil, castor oil, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, olive
oil, cotton, silk, wool, regenerated fibers, asbestos, kaolin, prepared chalk, kieselguhr.
8. Animal products
Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Shellac, cochineal,
cantharides, woolfat, lard, beeswax, honey, musk, lanolin, gelatin.
- Plant products
Introduction to plant bitters, sweeteners, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and photosensitizing
- Toxic drugs
Study of allergens, hallucinogens, narcotics.
Biological sources, preparation, characters, and uses of: diastase, papain bromelain, ficin, yeast,
pancreatin, urokinase, pepsin, trypsin, penicillinase, hyaluronidase and streptokinase.
- Natural pesticides and insecticides
Introduction to herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and rodenticides tobacco, pyrethrum, &
- Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs
Different methods of adulteration: Evaluation of drugs by organoleptic, microscopic, physical,
chemical and biological methods. Deterioration of herbal drugs by insects.
- Quantitative microscopy
Definition and determination of stomatal index, stomatal number, palisade ratio, vein islet
number, vein termination number, lycopodium spore method. Micrometers and measurement
of microscopic characters.
- Biogenetic pathways
Formation of primary and secondary metabolites. Study of Calvin cycle, TCA cycle, Shikimic acid
pathway, Embden-Mayerhoff pathway, acetate hypothesis, isoprenoid pathway. Biosynthesis of
carbohydrates, lipids and volatile oils.
- Carbohydrates & lipids
Biological sources, salient morphological features, chemical constituents, and uses of: Plantago,
bael, chaulmoogra oil, neem oil, shark liver oil, cod liver oil, guggul lipids.
Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, chemical test and uses of: Pale catechu,
black catechu, nutgalls, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia arjuna.
- Volatile oils
Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Black pepper,
turpentine, mentha, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, cassia, lemon peel, orange peel,
lemongrass, citronella, cumin, caraway, dill, spearmint, clove, anise, star anise, fennel, nutmeg,
eucalyptus, chenopodium, ajowan, sandalwood.
- Resinous drugs
Classification, formation, sources, chemical constituents, identification test, adulterants and
uses of: benzoin, Peru balsam, tolu balsam, colophony, myrrh, asafoetida, jalap, colocynth,
ginger, turmeric, capsicum, cannabis, podophyllum.
Nature and classification. Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants
and uses of: Digitalis, strophanthus, squill, thevetia, oleander, cascara, aloe, rhubarb, senna,
quassia, dioscorea, quillaia, glycyrrhiza, ginseng, gentian, wild cherry, withania, bitter almond.
Biosynthesis of cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides.
Nature, classification, biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and
uses of: Areca nut, belladonna, hyoscymous, stramonium, duboisea, coca, coffee, tea,
cinchona, opium, ipecac, nux vomica, ergot, rauwolfia, vinca, kurchi, ephedra, colchicum,
vasaca, pilocarpus, aconite, Solanum xanthocarpum. Biosynthesis of tropane, cinchona and
- Extraction and Isolation Techniques
General methods used for the extraction, isolation and identification of alkaloids, lipids,
glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils and resins. Application of column, paper and thin
layer chromatographic techniques, for the isolation of phytopharmaceuticals.
Isolation, identification and estimation of: caffeine, eugenol, digoxin, piperine, tannic acid,
diosgenin, hesperidin, berberine, calcium sennosides, rutin, glycyrrhizin, menthol, ephedrine,
quinine, andrographolides and guggul lipids.
- Quality control and Standardization of herbal drugs
Quality control of herbal drugs as per WHO, AYUSH and Pharmacopoeial guidelines-Extractive
values, ash values, chromatographic techniques (TLC, HPTLC and HPLC) for determination of
chromatographic markers. Determination of heavy metals, insecticides, pesticides and
microbial load in herbal preparations.
- Herbal formulations
Principals involved in Ayurveda, Sidha, Unani, Chinese and Homeopathic systems of medicines.
Preparation of Ayurvedic formulations like aristas, asava, ghutika, tailia, churna, avaleha, ghrita
and bhasmas: Unani formulations like majooms, Safoofs. Determination of alcohol contents in
arishtas & asavas.
- Worldwide trade of crude drugs and volatile oils
Study of drugs having high commercial value and their regulations pertaining to trade.
- Herbal cosmetics
Importance of herbals as shampoos (soapnut), conditioners and hair darkeners, (amla, henna,
hibiscus, tea), skin care (aloe, turmeric, lemon peel, vetiver).
- Traditional herbal drugs
Common names, sources, morphology, active constituents and uses (traditional, folklore),
pharmacological and clinical uses of: punarnava (Boerhaviadiffusa), shankhpushpi (Convolvulus
microphylla), lehsun (Allium sativum), guggul (Commiphora mukul), kalmegh (Andrographis
peniculata), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), valerian (Valerian officinalis), artemisia (Artemisia annua),
chirata (Swertia chirata), ashoka (Saraca indica).
- Plants based industries and research institutes in India
Knowledge about the herbal products being manufactured by premier herbal industries and
thrust area of the institutes involved in plant research.
Indian and International patent laws, proposed amendments as applicable to herbal/natural
products and processes: Intellectual Property Rights with special reference to
- Ayurvedic system of medicine
Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, various branches of treatment in ayurveda, types of the drug
formulation in Ayurveda and important Ayurvedic drugs and their uses, formulation of asavas,
arishtas, watika, churna, tailas, ghruta, lep.
- Homeopathic system of medicine
Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, treatment, source of homeopathic medicines and important
homeopathic drugs and their uses
- General Pharmacology
Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, scope and source of drugs, dosage forms and routes
of drug administration. Pharmacodynamics-Mechanism of drug action, Receptors,
classification and drug-receptor interactions, combined effects of drugs, factors modifying
Pharmacokinetics-Mechanism and principle of absorption, distribution, metabolism and
excretion of drugs. Principles of basic and clinical pharmacokinetics. Pharmacogenetics.
Adverse drug reactions.
Discovery and development of new drugs-Preclinical and clinical studies.
Detailed pharmacology including classification, mechanism of action and therapeutic uses
of following classes:
- Nerohumoral transmission in autonomic and central nervous system:
Neurohumoral transmission (Autonomic and somatic). Neurohumoral transmission in the
C.N.S with special emphasis on Pharmacology of various neurotransmitters. Nitric oxide:
Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its physiological role.
Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors. Clinical condition in which nitric
oxide may play a part.
Peptides and proteins as mediators:
General Principal of peptide pharmacology Biosynthesis and regulation of peptides Peptide
antagonists. Protein and peptide as drugs.
- Pharmacology of peripheral nervous system
Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Sympatholytics,
Ganglionic stimulants and blockers. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle
Local anesthetic agents. Drugs used in Myasthenia Gravis.
- Pharmacology of central nervous System
General anesthetics. Alcohols and disulfiram. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting
muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety
agents, anti-manics and hallucinogens.
Anti-epileptic drugs. Anti-parkinsonism drugs. Nootropics.
Narcotic analgesics, drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.
- Pharmacology of cardiovascular system
Introduction of hemodynamics and Electrophysiology of heart.
Anti-hypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal agents, Anti-arrhythmic drugs.
Drugs used in congestive heart failure. Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs. Drugs
used in the therapy of shock.
Haematinics, anticoagulants and haemostatic agents.
Fibrinolytics and antiplatelet drugs.
Blood and plasma volume expanders.
- Drugs acting on urinary system
Diuretics and anti-diuretics.
- Drugs acting on Respiratory system
Anti-asthmatic drugs, Mucolytics and nasal decongestants, Anti-tussives and expectorants.
- Pharmacology of Endocrine system
Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology. Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. Thyroid
hormones and antithyroid drugs, Parathormone, Calcitonin and vitamin-D. Insulin, oral
hypoglycemic agents and glucagon. ACTH and corticosteroids. Androgens and anabolic
steroids. Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives. Drugs acting on the uteru.
General principles of chemotherapy. Sulphonamides and co-trimoxazole.
Antibiotics- Penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, Macrolides, quinolones and
fluoroquinolons,. Tetracyclines. Aminoglycosides and miscellaneous antibiotics.
Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, AIDS, protozoal
diseases, worm infections, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases.
Chemotherapy of malignancy.
- Autacoids and their Antagonists
Histamine, 5-HT and their agonsists and antagonists.
Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. pentagastrin, cholecystokinin, angiotensin,
bradykinin and substance P.,Analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs.
- Pharmacology of drug acting on the gastrointestinal tract
Antacids, anti-secretary and antiulcer drugs.
Laxatives and antidiarrheal drugs. Appetite stimulants and suppressants. Digestants and
carminatives. Emetics and anti-emetics.
Definition of rhythm and cycles. Biological clocks and their significance leading to
Immunostimulants and immunosuppressants.
- Vitamins & Minerals
Vitamin deficiency diseases and their management. Role of minerals in health & diseases.
- Principles of toxicology
Definition of poison. General principles of treatment of Poisoning. Treatment of poisoning
due to Heavy metals, insecticides, opioids and other addict forming drugs. Study of acute,
sub acute and chronic toxicity as per OECD guidelines (guidelines
420,423,425,407,408,451/452; only names and significance, detailed procedures and
minute details are not expected).
- PDF of Syllabus