GPAT 2022 Detailed Syllabus and Exam Pattern
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GPAT Examination Pattern 2022, GPAT 2022 Syllabus for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, GPAT 2022 Syllabus for Pharmaceutics, GPAT 2022 Syllabus for Pharmacognosy, GPAT 2022 Syllabus for Pharmacology
GPAT Examination Pattern 2022
Subjects Question Marks
Pharmaceutical Chemistry 38 152
Pharmaceutics 38 152
Pharmacognosy 10 40
Pharmacology 28 112
Other Subjects 11 44
Total 125 500
GPAT 2022 Syllabus for Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry

  • Pharmaceutical Impurities
    Impurities in pharmaceutical substances, sources, types & effects of impurities. Limit tests for
    heavy metals like lead, iron, arsenic, mercury & for chloride & sulphate as per Indian
    Pharmacopoeia [I. P.].
  • Monographs
    (a) Monograph & its importance, various tests included in monographs as per I. P. A study
    of the following compounds with respect to their methods of preparation, assay, &
    pharmaceutical uses of sodium citrate, calcium carbonate, copper sulphate, light &
    heavy kaolin, ammonium chloride & ferrous gluconate.
  • Isotopes
    Isotopes- stable & radioactive, mode & rate of decay. Types & measurement of radioactivity.
    Radiopharmaceuticals & their diagnostic & therapeutic applications in pharmacy & medicine
    such as 125I, 32P, 51Cr, 60Co, 59Fe, 99Tc-M. Radiocontrast media, use of BaSO4 in medicine.
  • Dentifrices, desensitizing agents, & anticaries agents

Medicinal Chemistry

  • Therapeutic classes of drugs
    The following topics should be dealt with covering nomenclature [including stereochemical
    aspects], biological activity [including side & toxic effects], mode of action, structure-activity
    relationship [where ever applicable] & syntheses of reasonable molecules.
    1. General anesthetics.
    2. Local anesthetics.
    3. Diagnostic agents.
    4. Coagulants, anticoagulants & plasma expanders.
    5. Antiseptics, disinfectants, sterilants, & astringents.
    6. Purgatives, laxatives & antidiarrhoeal agents.
  • Various classes of therapeutic agents
    A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification,
    physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR],
    wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic
    uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective
    classes of drugs.
    a. Antimalarials
    b. Antiamoebic agents.
    c. Anthelmintic agents.
    d. Antibacterial sulpha drugs [only].
    e. Quinolone antibacterials.
    f. Antimycobacterial drugs.
    g. Antifungal agents.
    g. Antiviral agents including HIV & anti-HIV drugs.
    h. Thyroid & antithyroid drugs.
    i. Antiallergic agents.
    j. Antiulcer agents & Proton Pump Inhibitors.
    k. Hypoglycemic agents.
  • Different classes of therapeutic drugs
    A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification,
    physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR],
    wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic
    uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective
    classes of drugs.
    I. a. Sedative-hypnotics
    b. Antiepileptic agents.
    c. Neuroleptics.
    d. Anti-anxiety drugs.
    II. Antibiotics. Penicillins, cephalosporins & other beta-lactam antibiotics like imipenem &
    aztreonam. Beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid & sulbactam.
    Chloramphenicol. Tetracyclines. Aminoglycoside antibiotics. Macrolide antibiotics.
    Lincomycins. Polypeptide antibiotics. Anticancer antibiotics.
    III. Steroids. Corticosteroids [gluco- & mineralocorticoids] & anti-inflammatory steroids. Sex
    steroids. Male & female contraceptive agents. Anabolic steroids.
    Anticancer agents.
  • Different classes of therapeutic drugs
    A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification,
    physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity
    relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug
    metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, in respective
    classes of drugs.
    I. Narcotic [centrally acting] analgesics [analgetics]. Morphine & all its structural
    modifications [peripheral & nuclear]. Narcotic agonists & antagonists [dual & pure].
    Non-narcotic analgesics [NSAIDS]. Difference between narcotic & non-narcotic agents.
    II. Adrenergic drugs. Neurotransmitters & their role. General & specific adrenergic agonists
    & antagonists [up to alpha-2 & beta-2 only].
    III. Cholinergic agents. Muscarinic & nicotinic cholinergic agonists & antagonists [up to M2
    & N2]. Neuronal [transmission] blockers.
    IV. Drugs used in neuromuscular disorders. Drugs used in the treatment of
    Parkinson’s disease. Central & peripheral muscle relaxants.
    V. Hypertensive, antihypertensive, & antianginal agents.
    VI. Diuretics.
    VII. Eicosanoids. Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, & thromboxanes. Their biochemical
    role, biosynthesis, & inhibitors.
  • Introduction to quantitative structure-activity relationship. [QSAR]. Linear free energy
    relationship. Hammett’s equation. Use of substituent constants such as π,
    σ, Es, & physicochemical parameters such as pKa, partition coefficient, Rm, chemical shifts,
    molar refractivity, simple & valance molecular connectivity to indicate electronic effects,
    lipophilic effects, & steric effects. Introduction, methodology, advantages &
    disadvantages/limitations of Hansch analysis.
  • Asymmetric synthesis. Chirality, chiral pool, sources of various naturally available chiral
    compounds. Eutomers, distomers, eudismic ratio. Enantioselectivity &
    enantiospecificity. Enantiomeric & diastereomeric excess. Prochiral molecules.
    Asymmetric synthesis of captopril & propranolol.
  • Combinatorial chemistry. Introduction & basic terminology. Databases & libraries. Solid
    phase synthesis technique. Types of supports & linkers, Wang, Rink, & dihydropyran
    derivatized linkers. Reactions involving these linkers. Manual parallel & automated
    parallel synthesis. Houghton’s tea bag method, micromanipulation, recursive
    deconvolution. Mix & split method for the synthesis of tripeptides. Limitations of
    combinatorial synthesis. Introduction to throughput screening.
GPAT 2022 Syllabus for Pharmaceutics
  • Pharmacy Profession & Introduction to Pharmaceuticals
    Pharmacy as a career, evaluation of Pharmacy, earlier period middle to modern ages.
    Definition, importance of pharmaceuticals, areas concerned, scope of Pharmaceutics, history
    and development of the profession of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical industry in India. A brief
    review of present Indian Pharma. Industry in global perspective.
  • Introduction to dosage form
    Definition of the drug. New drug and dosage form. The desirable properties of a dosage form,
    the need of dosage form. Ideas about the available type of dosage forms and new drug delivery
    system.
  • Sources of drug information
    Introduction to Pharmacopoeia with reference to IP, BP, USP and International Pharmacopeia.
    Study of structure/features (index) general notice and compartment of monographs of
    excipients, drug and drug product. Other sources. Textbooks, journals, internet (drug
    information system, online database, patient/ consumer information and non- print material.
    Classification of information, primary, secondary and tertiary. Nomenclature of the drug.
  • Allopathic dosage form
    Merits/demerits, importance, formulation development – vehicles/excipients with examples for
    the dosage form: liquid dosage form: monophasic liquid dosage form. Aromatic waters, syrup,
    elixir, linctus, lotion, liniment, glycerites, solutions, spirits, ENT preparations, mixtures, paints,
    mouthwash.
  • Crude extract
    Infusion, decoction, maceration, percolation, tincture and extract. Methods of preparations of
    dry, soft and liquid extract.
  • Allergenic extract
    Types of allergens, preparation of extract, testing and standardization of extracts.
  • Biological products
    Absorbable and non-absorbable material types, sutures and ligatures, processing,
    manufacturing, sterilization, packing, QC tests of materials like catgut and nylon.
  • Pharmaceutical Plant, location, layout
    Plant location and layout of an industry. Various factors affecting locational aspects of chemical
    and pharmaceutical plants. The layout of plant building and importance of flow sheet, the
    difference between scientific process and technological process, the layout of various
    departments, equipment, and product layout v/s process layout.
  • Dosage Form Necessities and Additives
    Antioxidants, preservatives, coloring agents, flavoring agents and diluting agents, emulsifying
    agents, suspending agents, ointment bases, solvents, and others.
  • Powders
    Advantages and limitations as dosage form, manufacturing procedure and equipment, special
    care and problems in manufacturing powders, powders of IP, effervescent granules and salts.
  • Capsules
    Hard gelatin capsules, shell formulation and manufacturing, capsule sizes, storage, filing,
    cleaning process general formulation contents and evaluation. Soft gelatin capsules, shell
    formulation, formulation contents, filing, sealing and storage. Microencapsulation, advantages,
    encapsulation materials, methods of microencapsulation, I.P. formulations
  • Tablets
    Types, ideal requirement, classification, granulation methods, general formulation,
    compression machines, different types of tooling’s, difficulties in tableting, troubleshooting
    aspects, evaluation, sugar coating, compression coating, film coating, problems in tablet
    coatings and their troubleshooting aspects. IP formulations.
  • Parenterals – product requiring sterile packaging
    Definition, types advantages and limitations, general formulation, vehicles, production
    procedure, production facilities, controls, tests, selected IP injections, sterile powders, implants,
    emulsions, suspensions.
  • Suspensions
    Formulation of deflocculated and flocculated suspension, manufacturing procedure, evaluation
    methods, IP suspensions.
  • Emulsions
    Types, emulsifying agents, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods,
    IP emulsions.
  • Suppositories
    Ideal requirements, bases, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.
  • Semisolids
    Definitions, bases, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP
    products.
  • Liquids(solutions, syrups, elixirs, spirits, aromatic water, liquid for external uses)
    Definition, types, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP
    products.
  • Pharmaceutical Aerosols
    Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing and packaging methods,
    pharmaceutical applications. Impacts of propellants on the environment.
  • Ophthalmic preparations
    Requirement, formulation, methods of preparation, containers, evaluation, IP products.
  • Preformulations
    Consideration of Importance, physical properties, physical forms, particle size, crystal forms,
    bulk control, solubility, wetting, flow cohesiveness, compressibility, organoleptic properties and
    its effect on final product consideration of Chemical properties, hydrolysis, oxidation,
    recemization, polymerization, isomerization, decarboxylation, enzymatic decomposition,
    formulation additives, stabilizers, suspending and dispersing agents dyes, solid excipients etc.
    and its effect on quality of finished product.
  • Stability of formulated products
    Requirements, drug regulatory aspects, pharmaceutical products stability, shelf life, overages,
    containers, closures.
    Reaction rate and order, acid-base catalysis, destabilization and accelerated stability testing.
  • Prolonged Action Pharmaceuticals
    Benefits, limitations, oral products, terminology, drug elimination rate, types and construction
    of implants products, product evaluation, parenteral products, absorption and evaluation.
  • Novel Drug delivery system
    Critical fluid technology, transdermal drug delivery system, controlled drug delivery system,
    multiple emulsion, nanoparticles, targeted drug delivery system, aerosols, inhalation & new
    products reported etc.
  • GMP and Validation
    Introduction to GMP, QC and QA. Concept and need of good manufacturing practice guidelines.
    Elements of GMP covering controls of area and processes and product. Regulations related to
    GMP. Introduction of the validation process. Types of validation. The brief methodology of
    process, equipment and instrument validation.
  • Packaging Materials
    Role and features of Pharmaceutical packing materials. Glass, plastic, rubber, metal and paper
    as pharmaceutical packaging material. General quality control of pharmaceutical packages.
    Primary, secondary and tertiary packaging materials. Child resistant and pilfer-proof packaging.
  • Cosmetics
    Formulation and preparation of dentifrices, hair creams, lipsticks, face powders, shaving
    preparations, skin creams, shampoos, hair dyes, depilatories, manicure preparations etc.
  • Pilot plant scale-up techniques
    Need, organization and layout, scale-up techniques for solid and liquid dosage forms.
    Technology transfer.
GPAT 2022 Syllabus for Pharmacognosy
  • Introductory Pharmacognosy
    Historical development, modern concept and scope of Pharmacognosy. The significance of
    Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in India viz: Ayurveda, Unani,
    Homeopathic and Siddha.
  • Classification of crude drugs
    Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical and
    chemotaxonomic methods: organized and unorganized drugs: official and unofficial drugs.
    Plants, animals and minerals: marine products: plant tissue culture.
  • Factors influencing quality of crude drugs
    Exogenous factors: temperature, rainfall, daylight, altitude and soil. Endogenous factors:
    Mutation, polyploidy, & hybridization in medicinal plants. Production factors including
    collection, drying, storage and transport methods.
    Study of morphological and histological characters of crude drugs, Ergastic cell inclusions,
    anatomical structures of both monocot and dicot stems, leaves and roots: barks, fruits and
    seeds.
  • Techniques in microscopy
    Details of mountants, clearing agents, chemomicroscopic (microchemical) reagents.
  • Introduction to phytoconstituents
    Definition, classification, chemical tests and pharmaceutical importance of: carbohydrates and
    their derivatives, fats and proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins,
    resins, lipids and volatile oils.
  • Principles of plant classification
    Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to:
    Algae: Rhodophyceae (Agar, Alginic acid, Diatoms).
    Fungi: Ergot, Yeast and penicillium.
    Gymnosperm: Pinaceae (Turpentine, Colophony), Gnetaceae (Ephedra).
    Angiosperm: Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae,
    Scrophulariaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Acanthaceae and Apiaceae.
    Pteridophytes: Male fern.
  • Pharmaceutical aids
    Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Starches, acacia gum,
    tragacanth, sterculia, guar gum, pectin, arachis oil, castor oil, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, olive
    oil, cotton, silk, wool, regenerated fibers, asbestos, kaolin, prepared chalk, kieselguhr.
    8. Animal products
    Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Shellac, cochineal,
    cantharides, woolfat, lard, beeswax, honey, musk, lanolin, gelatin.
  • Plant products
    Introduction to plant bitters, sweeteners, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and photosensitizing
    agents.
  • Toxic drugs
    Study of allergens, hallucinogens, narcotics.
  • Enzymes
    Biological sources, preparation, characters, and uses of: diastase, papain bromelain, ficin, yeast,
    pancreatin, urokinase, pepsin, trypsin, penicillinase, hyaluronidase and streptokinase.
  • Natural pesticides and insecticides
    Introduction to herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and rodenticides tobacco, pyrethrum, &
    neem.
  • Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs
    Different methods of adulteration: Evaluation of drugs by organoleptic, microscopic, physical,
    chemical and biological methods. Deterioration of herbal drugs by insects.
  • Quantitative microscopy
    Definition and determination of stomatal index, stomatal number, palisade ratio, vein islet
    number, vein termination number, lycopodium spore method. Micrometers and measurement
    of microscopic characters.
  • Biogenetic pathways
    Formation of primary and secondary metabolites. Study of Calvin cycle, TCA cycle, Shikimic acid
    pathway, Embden-Mayerhoff pathway, acetate hypothesis, isoprenoid pathway. Biosynthesis of
    carbohydrates, lipids and volatile oils.
  • Carbohydrates & lipids
    Biological sources, salient morphological features, chemical constituents, and uses of: Plantago,
    bael, chaulmoogra oil, neem oil, shark liver oil, cod liver oil, guggul lipids.
  • Tannins
    Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, chemical test and uses of: Pale catechu,
    black catechu, nutgalls, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia arjuna.
  • Volatile oils
    Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Black pepper,
    turpentine, mentha, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, cassia, lemon peel, orange peel,
    lemongrass, citronella, cumin, caraway, dill, spearmint, clove, anise, star anise, fennel, nutmeg,
    eucalyptus, chenopodium, ajowan, sandalwood.
  • Resinous drugs
    Classification, formation, sources, chemical constituents, identification test, adulterants and
    uses of: benzoin, Peru balsam, tolu balsam, colophony, myrrh, asafoetida, jalap, colocynth,
    ginger, turmeric, capsicum, cannabis, podophyllum.
  • Glycosides
    Nature and classification. Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants
    and uses of: Digitalis, strophanthus, squill, thevetia, oleander, cascara, aloe, rhubarb, senna,
    quassia, dioscorea, quillaia, glycyrrhiza, ginseng, gentian, wild cherry, withania, bitter almond.
    Biosynthesis of cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides.
  • Alkaloids
    Nature, classification, biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and
    uses of: Areca nut, belladonna, hyoscymous, stramonium, duboisea, coca, coffee, tea,
    cinchona, opium, ipecac, nux vomica, ergot, rauwolfia, vinca, kurchi, ephedra, colchicum,
    vasaca, pilocarpus, aconite, Solanum xanthocarpum. Biosynthesis of tropane, cinchona and
    opium alkaloids.
  • Extraction and Isolation Techniques
    General methods used for the extraction, isolation and identification of alkaloids, lipids,
    glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils and resins. Application of column, paper and thin
    layer chromatographic techniques, for the isolation of phytopharmaceuticals.
  • Phytopharmaceuticals
    Isolation, identification and estimation of: caffeine, eugenol, digoxin, piperine, tannic acid,
    diosgenin, hesperidin, berberine, calcium sennosides, rutin, glycyrrhizin, menthol, ephedrine,
    quinine, andrographolides and guggul lipids.
  • Quality control and Standardization of herbal drugs
    Quality control of herbal drugs as per WHO, AYUSH and Pharmacopoeial guidelines-Extractive
    values, ash values, chromatographic techniques (TLC, HPTLC and HPLC) for determination of
    chromatographic markers. Determination of heavy metals, insecticides, pesticides and
    microbial load in herbal preparations.
  • Herbal formulations
    Principals involved in Ayurveda, Sidha, Unani, Chinese and Homeopathic systems of medicines.
    Preparation of Ayurvedic formulations like aristas, asava, ghutika, tailia, churna, avaleha, ghrita
    and bhasmas: Unani formulations like majooms, Safoofs. Determination of alcohol contents in
    arishtas & asavas.
  • Worldwide trade of crude drugs and volatile oils
    Study of drugs having high commercial value and their regulations pertaining to trade.
  • Herbal cosmetics
    Importance of herbals as shampoos (soapnut), conditioners and hair darkeners, (amla, henna,
    hibiscus, tea), skin care (aloe, turmeric, lemon peel, vetiver).
  • Traditional herbal drugs
    Common names, sources, morphology, active constituents and uses (traditional, folklore),
    pharmacological and clinical uses of: punarnava (Boerhaviadiffusa), shankhpushpi (Convolvulus
    microphylla), lehsun (Allium sativum), guggul (Commiphora mukul), kalmegh (Andrographis
    peniculata), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), valerian (Valerian officinalis), artemisia (Artemisia annua),
    chirata (Swertia chirata), ashoka (Saraca indica).
  • Plants based industries and research institutes in India
    Knowledge about the herbal products being manufactured by premier herbal industries and
    thrust area of the institutes involved in plant research.
  • Patents
    Indian and International patent laws, proposed amendments as applicable to herbal/natural
    products and processes: Intellectual Property Rights with special reference to
    phytoconstituents.
  • Ayurvedic system of medicine
    Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, various branches of treatment in ayurveda, types of the drug
    formulation in Ayurveda and important Ayurvedic drugs and their uses, formulation of asavas,
    arishtas, watika, churna, tailas, ghruta, lep.
  • Homeopathic system of medicine
    Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, treatment, source of homeopathic medicines and important
    homeopathic drugs and their uses
GPAT 2022 Syllabus for Pharmacology
  • General Pharmacology
    Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, scope and source of drugs, dosage forms and routes
    of drug administration. Pharmacodynamics-Mechanism of drug action, Receptors,
    classification and drug-receptor interactions, combined effects of drugs, factors modifying
    drug actions.
    Pharmacokinetics-Mechanism and principle of absorption, distribution, metabolism and
    excretion of drugs. Principles of basic and clinical pharmacokinetics. Pharmacogenetics.
    Adverse drug reactions.
    Discovery and development of new drugs-Preclinical and clinical studies.
    Detailed pharmacology including classification, mechanism of action and therapeutic uses
    of following classes:
  • Nerohumoral transmission in autonomic and central nervous system:
    Neurohumoral transmission (Autonomic and somatic). Neurohumoral transmission in the
    C.N.S with special emphasis on Pharmacology of various neurotransmitters. Nitric oxide:
    Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its physiological role.
    Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors. Clinical condition in which nitric
    oxide may play a part.
    Peptides and proteins as mediators:
    General Principal of peptide pharmacology Biosynthesis and regulation of peptides Peptide
    antagonists. Protein and peptide as drugs.
  • Pharmacology of peripheral nervous system
    Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Sympatholytics,
    Ganglionic stimulants and blockers. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle
    relaxants (peripheral).
    Local anesthetic agents. Drugs used in Myasthenia Gravis.
  • Pharmacology of central nervous System
    General anesthetics. Alcohols and disulfiram. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting
    muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety
    agents, anti-manics and hallucinogens.
    Anti-epileptic drugs. Anti-parkinsonism drugs. Nootropics.
    Narcotic analgesics, drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.
  • Pharmacology of cardiovascular system
    Introduction of hemodynamics and Electrophysiology of heart.
    Anti-hypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal agents, Anti-arrhythmic drugs.
    Drugs used in congestive heart failure. Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs. Drugs
    used in the therapy of shock.
    Haematinics, anticoagulants and haemostatic agents.
    Fibrinolytics and antiplatelet drugs.
    Blood and plasma volume expanders.
  • Drugs acting on urinary system
    Diuretics and anti-diuretics.
  • Drugs acting on Respiratory system
    Anti-asthmatic drugs, Mucolytics and nasal decongestants, Anti-tussives and expectorants.
    Respiratory stimulants
  • Pharmacology of Endocrine system
    Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology. Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. Thyroid
    hormones and antithyroid drugs, Parathormone, Calcitonin and vitamin-D. Insulin, oral
    hypoglycemic agents and glucagon. ACTH and corticosteroids. Androgens and anabolic
    steroids. Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives. Drugs acting on the uteru.
  • Chemotherapy
    General principles of chemotherapy. Sulphonamides and co-trimoxazole.
    Antibiotics- Penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, Macrolides, quinolones and
    fluoroquinolons,. Tetracyclines. Aminoglycosides and miscellaneous antibiotics.
    Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, AIDS, protozoal
    diseases, worm infections, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases.
    Chemotherapy of malignancy.
  • Autacoids and their Antagonists
    Histamine, 5-HT and their agonsists and antagonists.
    Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. pentagastrin, cholecystokinin, angiotensin,
    bradykinin and substance P.,Analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs.
  • Pharmacology of drug acting on the gastrointestinal tract
    Antacids, anti-secretary and antiulcer drugs.
    Laxatives and antidiarrheal drugs. Appetite stimulants and suppressants. Digestants and
    carminatives. Emetics and anti-emetics.
  • Chronopharmacology
    Definition of rhythm and cycles. Biological clocks and their significance leading to
    chronotherapy.
  • Immnopharmacology
    Immunostimulants and immunosuppressants.
  • Vitamins & Minerals
    Vitamin deficiency diseases and their management. Role of minerals in health & diseases.
  • Principles of toxicology
    Definition of poison. General principles of treatment of Poisoning. Treatment of poisoning
    due to Heavy metals, insecticides, opioids and other addict forming drugs. Study of acute,
    sub acute and chronic toxicity as per OECD guidelines (guidelines
    420,423,425,407,408,451/452; only names and significance, detailed procedures and
    minute details are not expected).
  • PDF of Syllabus
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