|ICAR AIEEE 2022 Syllabus for Physics
- Unit-1: Physical World and Measurement
Physics scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. Need for
measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
- Unit-2: Kinematics
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion: velocity-time graph, positiontime graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space. Motion of objects in three dimensional space.
- Unit-3: Laws of Motion
Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
- Unit-4: Work, Energy and Power
Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy
theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of
mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: elastic and inelastic collisions in
one and two dimensions.
- Unit-5: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass
of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Vector product of vectors; moment of a force, torque, angular
momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body
rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia,
radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects. Statement of parallel and
perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
- Unit-6: Gravitation
Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
- Unit-7: Properties of Bulk Matter
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of
rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes).
Effect of gravity on fluid pressure. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and
turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact,
application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat. Heat transferconduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling.
- Unit-8: Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal
energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes.
Heat engines and refrigerators.
- Unit-9: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions,
concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of
equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path,
- Unit-10: Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple Harmonic
Motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring–restoring force and force constant; energy in
S.H.M.- kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum– derivation of expression for its time period; free,
forced and damped oscillations, resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave
motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves,
standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
- Unit-11: Electrostatics
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces between
multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in
parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.
- Unit-12: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with
electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V – I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy
and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and
parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchoff’s laws and simple
applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure
potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
- Unit-13: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving
electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its
axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent
solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic
substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
- Unit-14: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Need for displacement current. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating
current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit,
resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.
- Unit-15: Electromagnetic waves
Displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse
nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible,
ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
- Unit-16: Optics
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its
applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula.
Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia,
hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
- Unit-17: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric
equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer
- Unit-18: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen
spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity, alpha,
beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect;
binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion.
- Unit-19: Electronic Devices
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I -V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I – V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
- Unit-20: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.
|ICAR AIEEE 2022 Syllabus for Chemistry
- Unit-1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter,
laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and
molecular masses mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula
chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
- Unit-2: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids,
amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices,
calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point
defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
- Unit-3: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids,
solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of Boiling Point,
depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties,
abnormal molecular mass.
- Unit-4: Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model and its
limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and
subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of
orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle,
Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely
- Unit-5: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the
present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii. Ionization
enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.
- Unit-6: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent
bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules,
VSEPR (Valence shell electron pair repulsion) theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and
shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea
only), hydrogen bond.
- Unit-7: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws
in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal
behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal
behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface
tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
- Unit-8: Thermodynamics
Concepts of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties,
state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat,
measurement of DU and DH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation, ionization, and solution. Introduction of
entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for
- Unit-9: Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium
constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases,
strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts. Buffer solutions, solubility
product, common ion effect.
- Unit-10: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications
of redox reactions.
- Unit-11: Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen;
hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen
peroxide-preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
- Unit-12: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each
group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic
radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
- Unit-13: Preparation and properties of some important compounds
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance
of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg
- Unit-14: Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction to p-Block Elements: Group 13 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in
chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties,
some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and
- Unit-15: Group 14 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in
chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element, Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and
chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few
uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites.
- Unit-16: Organic Chemistry
Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of
organic compounds, Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect,
resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals,
carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions
- Unit-17: Hydrocarbons
Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions
including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties,
methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides
(Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation,
chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene: resonance, aromaticity; chemical
properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel-Craft’s
alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity
- Unit-18: Electrochemistry
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with
concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic
cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its
application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
- Unit-19: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature,
catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and
half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical
- Unit-20: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis :
homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between
true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids;
properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of
- Unit-21: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining;
occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
- Unit-22: p-Block Elements
Group 15 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical
properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of
ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of
phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids
- Unit-23: Group 16 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical
properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms;
compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of
manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
- Unit-24: Group 17 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical
properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid,
interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
- Unit-25: Group 18 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
- Unit-26: d and f Block Elements
General introduction ,electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general
trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states,
ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and
properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
- Unit-27: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes,
IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination
compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
- Unit-28: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted
compounds only) Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,
iodoform, freons, DDT.
- Unit-29: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only);
identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and
ethanol. Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of
phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties, uses.
- Unit-30: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties;
- Unit-31: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties,
uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
- Unit-32: Biomolecules
Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose),
oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins – Elementary idea of á-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of amines-primary,
secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins;
Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA .
- Unit-33: Polymers
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization.
Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, Bakelite, rubber.
- Unit-34: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major
atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect
and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing
pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
- Unit-35: Chemistry in Everyday life
1. Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility
drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
|ICAR AIEEE 2022 Syllabus for Biology
- Unit : 1 The Living World
Nature and scope of Biology. Methods of Biology. Our place in the universe. Laws that govern the universe and
life. Level of organization. Cause and effect relationship.
Being alive. What does it mean? Present approaches to understand life processes, molecular approach; life as
an expression of energy; steady state and homeostasis; self duplication and survival; adaptation; death as a
positive part of life.
Origin of life and its maintenance. Origin and diversity of life. Physical and chemical principles that maintain life
processes. The living crust and interdependence. The positive and negative aspects of progress in biological
sciences. The future of the living world, identification of human responsibility in shaping our future.
- Unit : 2 Unit of Life
Cell as a unit of life. Small biomolecules; water, minerals, mono and oligosaccharides, lipids, amino acids,
nucleotides and their chemistry, cellular location and function. Macromolecules in cells – their chemistry, cellular
location and functional significance. Polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. Enzymes; chemical nature,
classification, mechanism in action-enzyme complex, allosteric modulation (brief), irreversible activation.
Biomembranes; Fluid mosaic model of membrane, role in transport, recognition of external information (brief).
Structural organization of the cell; light and electron microscopic views of cell, its organelles and their functions;
nucleus mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi complex, lysosomes, microtubules, cell wall,
cilia and flagella, vacuoles, cell inclusions. A general account of cellular respiration. Fermentation, biological
oxidation (A cycle outline), mitochondrial electron transport chain, high energy bonds and oxidative
phosphorylation, cell reproduction; Process of mitosis and meiosis.
- Unit : 3 Diversity of Life
Introduction. The enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope with this variety; taxonomy
and phylogeny; shortcomings of a two kingdom classification as plants and animals; the five kingdom
classification, Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia; the basic features of five kingdom classification.
modes of obtaining nutrition-autotrophs and heterotrophs. Life style producers, consumers and decomposers.
Unicellularity and multicellularity, phylogenetic relationships. Concepts of species, taxon and categories –
hierarchical levels of classification; binomial nomenclature; principles of classification and nomenclature;
identification and nature of viruses and bacteriophages; kingdom Monera-archeabacteria – life in extreme
environments; Bacteria, Actinomycetes, Cyanobacteria. Examples & illustration of autotrophic and heterotrophic
life; mineralizes-nitrogen fixers; Monera in cycling matter; symbiotic forms; disease producers. Kingdom
Protista-Eukaryotic unicellular organisms, development of flagella and cilia; beginning of mitosis; syngamy and
sex. Various life styles shown in the major phyla. Evolutionary precursors of complex life forms. Diatoms,
dinoflagellates, slime moulds, protozons; symbiotic forms. Plant kingdom-complex autotrophs, red brown and
green algae; conquest of land, bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Vascularization;
development of flower, fruit and seed. Kingdom fungi-lower fungi (Zygomycetes), higher fungi (Ascomycetes
and Basidiomycetes); the importance of fungi. Decomposers; parasitic forms; lichens and mycorrhizae. Animal
kingdom-animal body pattern and symmetry. The development of body cavity in invertebrate vertebrate physia.
Salient features with reference to habitat and example of phylum porifera, coelenterata, helminthis, annelids,
mollusca, arthropoda, echinoderms; chordata – (classes-fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals)
highlighting major characters.
- Unit : 4 Organisms and Environment
Species: Origin and concept of species population, interaction between environment and population community.
Biotic community, interaction between different species, biotic stability. Changes in the community. Succession.
Ecosystem; interaction between biotic and abiotic components; major ecosystems, manmade ecosystem- Agro
ecosystem. Biosphere; flow of energy, trapping of solar energy, energy pathway, food chain, food web,
biogeochemical cycles, calcium and sulphur, ecological imbalance and its consequences. Conservation of
natural resources; renewable and non-renewable (in brief). Water and land management, wasteland
development. Wild life and forest conservation; causes for the extinction of some wild life, steps taken to
conserve the remaining species, concept of endangered species-Indian examples, conservation of forests;
Indian forests, importance of forests, hazards of deforestation, concept of afforestation. Environmental pollution;
air and water pollution, sources, major pollutants of big cities of our country, their effects and methods of
control, pollution due to nuclear fallout and waste disposal, effect and control, noise pollution; sources and
- Unit : 5 Multicellularity : Structure and Function – Plant Life
Form and function. Tissue system in flowering plants; meristematic and permanent. Mineral nutrition-essential
elements, major functions of different elements, passive and active uptake of minerals. Modes of nutrition,
transport of solutes and water in plants. Photosynthesis; photochemical and biosynthetic phases, diversity in
photosynthetic pathways, photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphorylation, photorespiration.
Transpiration and exchange of gases. Stomatal mechanism. Osmoregulation in plants: water relations in plant
cells, water potential. Reproduction and development in Angiosperms; asexual and sexual reproduction.
Structure and functions of flower: development of male and female gametophytes in angiosperms, pollination,
fertilization and development of endosperm, embryo seed and fruit. Differentiation and organ formation. Plant
hormones and growth regulation; action of plant hormones in relation to seed dormancy and germination, apical
dominance, senescence and abscission. Applications of synthetic growth regulators. A brief account of growth
and movement in plants.
- Unit : 6 Multicellularity : Structure and Function – Animal Life
Animal tissues, epithelial, connective, muscular, nerve. Animal nutrition, organs of digestion and digestive
process, nutritional requirements for carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins; nutritional imbalances
and deficiency diseases. Gas exchange and transport: Pulmonary gas exchange and organs involved, transport
of gases in blood, gas exchange in aqueous media circulation: closed and open vascular systems, structure
and pumping action of heart, arterial blood pressure, lymph. Excretion and osomoregulation. Ammonotelism,
Ureotelism, urecotelism, excretion of water and urea with special reference to man. Role of kidney in regulation
of plasma, osmolarity on the basis of nephron structure, skin and lungs in excretion. Hormonal coordination;
hormones of mammals, role of hormones as messengers and regulators. Nervous coordination, central
autonomic and peripheral nervous systems, receptors, effectors, reflex action, basic physiology of special
senses, integrative control by neuroendocrinal systems. Locomotion: joints, muscle movements, types of
skeletal muscles according to types of movement, basic aspects of human skeleton. Reproduction; human
reproduction, female reproductive cycles. Embryonic development in mammals (upto three germs layers),
growth, repair and ageing.
- Unit : 7 Continuity of Life
Heredity and variation: Introduction, Mendel’s experiments with peas and concepts of factors. Mendel’s laws of
inheritance. Genes: Packaging of heredity material in prokaryotes-bacterial chromosome and plasmid; and
eukaryote chromosomes. Extranuclear genes, viral genes. Linkage (genetic) maps. Sex determination and sex
linkage. Genetic material and its replication, gene manipulation. Gene expression; genetic code, transcription,
translation, gene regulation. Molecular basis of differentiation.
- Unit : 8 Origin and Evolution of Life
Origin of life: living and non-living, chemical evolution, organic evolution; Oparin ideas, Miller-Urey experiments.
Interrelationship among living organisms and evidences of evolution: fossil records including geological scale,
Morphological evidence – hematology, vestigeal organs, embryological similarities and biogeographical
Darwin’s two major contributions. Common origin of living organisms and recombination as source of variability,
selection and variation, adaptation (Lederberg’s replica plating experiment for indirect selection of bacterial
mutants), reproductive isolation, speciation. Role of selection, change and drift in determining composition of
population. Selected examples: industrial melanism; drug resistance, mimicry, malaria in relation to G-6-PD
deficiency and sickle cell disease. Human evolution: Palcontological evidence, man’s place among mammals.
Brief idea of Dryopithecus, Australopithecus, Homo erectus, H.neanderthlensis, Cro-Magnon man and Homo
sapiens. Human chromosomes, similarity in different racial groups. Comparison with chromosomes of nonhuman primates to indicate common origin; Cultural vs. biological evolution.
Mutation: origin and types of mutation, their role in speciation.
- Unit : 9 Application of Biology
Introduction, role of biology, in the amelioration of human problems. Domestication of plant- a historical account,
improvement of crop plants; Principles of plant breeding and plant introduction. Use of fertilizers, their economic
and ecological aspects.
Use of pesticides: advantages and hazards. Biological methods of pest control. Crops today. Current concerns,
gene pools and genetic conservation. Underutilized crops with potential uses of oilseeds, medicines,
beverages, spices, fodder, New crops-Leucaena (Subabul), Jojoba, Guayule, winged bean, etc. Biofertilizers –
green manure, crop residues and nitrogen fixation (symbiotic, non symbiotic). Applications of tissue culture and
genetic engineering in crops. Domestication and introduction of animals. Livestock, poultry, fisheries (fresh
water, marine, aquaculture). Improvement of animals: principles of animal breeding. Major animal diseases and
their control. Insects and their products (silk, honey, wax and lac). Bioenergy-biomass, wood (combustion;
gasification, ethanol). Cow dung cakes, gobar gas, plants as sources of hydrocarbons for producing petroleum,
ethanol from starch and lignocellulose. Biotechnology, application in health and agriculture, genetically modified
(GM) organisms, bio-safety issues. A brief historical account-manufacture of cheese. yoghurt, alcohol, yeast,
vitamins, organic acids, antibiotics, steroids, dextrins. Scaling up laboratory findings to Industrial production,
sewage treatment. Production of insulin, human growth hormones, interferon. Communicable diseases
including STD and diseases spread through ‘blood transfusion (hepatitis, AIDS, etc) Immune response, vaccine
and antisera. Allergies and Inflammation. Inherited diseases and dysfunctions, sex-linked diseases, genetic
incompatibilities, and genetic counseling. Cancer-major types, causes, diagnosis and treatment. Tissue and
organ transplantation. Community health services and measures; blood banks; mental health, smoking,
alcoholism and drug addiction-physiological symptoms and control measures. Industrial wastes, toxicology,
pollution-related diseases. Biomedical engineering – spare parts for man, instruments for diagnosis of diseases
and care. Human population related diseases. Human population, growth, problems and control, inequality
between sexes, control measures; test-tube babies aminocentesis. Future of Biology.
|ICAR AIEEE 2022 Syllabus for Mathematics
- UNIT 1: SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:
Sets and their representation: Union,
intersection and complement of sets and
their algebraic properties; Power set;
Relation, Type of relations, equivalence
relations, functions; one-one, into and onto
functions, the composition of functions.
- UNIT 2: COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS:
Complex numbers as ordered pairs of
reals, Representation of complex numbers
in the form a + ib and their representation
in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of
complex number, modulus and argument
(or amplitude) of a complex number,
square root of a complex number, triangle
inequality, Quadratic equations in real and
complex number system and their
solutions Relations between roots and coefficient, nature of roots, the formation of
quadratic equations with given roots.
- UNIT 3: MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS:
Matrices, algebra of matrices, type of
matrices, determinants and matrices of
order two and three, properties of
determinants, evaluation of determinants,
area of triangles using determinants,
Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a
square matrix using determinants and
elementary transformations, Test of
consistency and solution of simultaneous
linear equations in two or three variables
using determinants and matrices.
- UNIT 4: PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS:
The fundamental principle of counting,
permutation as an arrangement and
combination as section, Meaning of P (n,r)
and C (n,r), simple applications.
- UNIT 5: MATHEMATICAL INDUCTIONS:
Principle of Mathematical Induction and
its simple applications.
- UNIT 6: BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS:
Binomial theorem for a positive integral
index, general term and middle term,
properties of Binomial coefficients and
- UNIT 7: SEQUENCE AND SERIES:
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions,
insertion of arithmetic, geometric means
between two given numbers, Relation
between A.M and G.M sum up to n terms
of special series; Sn, Sn2, Sn3.
- UNIT 8: LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY:
Real – valued functions, algebra of
functions, polynomials, rational,
trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential
functions, inverse function. Graphs of
simple functions. Limits, continuity and
differentiability. Differentiation of the
sum, difference, product and quotient of
two functions. Differentiation of
trigonometric, inverse trigonometric,
logarithmic, exponential, composite and
implicit functions; derivatives of order up
to two, Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean value
Theorems, Applications of derivatives:
Rate of change of quantities, monotonic Increasing and decreasing functions,
Maxima and minima of functions of one
variable, tangents and normal.
- UNIT 9: INTEGRAL CALCULAS:
Integral as an anti-derivative, Fundamental
Integrals involving algebraic,
trigonometric, exponential and logarithms
functions. Integrations by substitution, by
parts and by partial functions. Integration
using trigonometric identities.
Integral as limit of a sum. The fundamental
theorem of calculus, properties of definite
integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals,
determining areas of the regions bounded
by simple curves in standard form.
- UNIT 10: DIFFRENTIAL EQUATIONS
Ordinary differential equations, their order
and degree, the formation of differential
equations, solution of differential equation
by the method of separation of variables,
solution of a homogeneous and linear
differential equation of the type
- UNIT 11: CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY
Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates in a plane, distance formula,
sections formula, locus and its equation,
translation of axes, the slope of a line,
parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts
of a line on the co-ordinate axis.
Straight line Various forms of equations of a line,
intersection of lines, angles between two
lines, conditions for concurrence of three
lines, the distance of a point form a line,
equations of internal and external by
sectors of angles between two lines coordinate of the centroid, orthocentre and
circumcentre of a triangle, equation of the
family of lines passing through the point of
intersection of two lines.
Circle, conic sections
A standard form of equations of a circle,
the general form of the equation of a circle,
its radius and central, equation of a circle
when the endpoints of a diameter are
given, points of intersection of a line and a
circle with the centre at the origin and
condition for a line to be tangent to a circle,
equation of the tangent, sections of conics,
equations of conic sections (parabola,
ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms,
condition for Y = mx +c to be a tangent and
point (s) of tangency.
- UNIT 12: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Coordinates of a point in space, the
distance between two points, section
formula, directions ratios and direction
cosines, the angle between two intersecting
lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance
between them and its equation. Equations
of a line and a plane in different forms, the
intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar
- UNIT 13: VECTOR ALGEBRA
Vectors and scalars, the addition of
vectors, components of a vector in two
dimensions and three-dimensional space,
scalar and vector products, scalar and
vector triple product.
- UNIT 14: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
Measures of discretion; calculation of
mean, median, mode of grouped and
ungrouped data calculation of standard
deviation, variance and mean deviation for
grouped and ungrouped data.
Probability: Probability of an event,
addition and multiplication theorems of
probability, Baye’s theorem, probability
distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli
trials and binomial distribution.
- UNIT 15: TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometrical identities and equations,
trigonometrical functions, inverse
trigonometrical functions and their
properties, heights and distance.
- UNIT 16: MATHEMATICAL REASONING
Statement logical operations and, or,
implies, implied by, if and only if,
understanding of tautology, contradiction,
converse and contrapositive.